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BACKGROUND End-systolic volume index (ESVI) is a marker of systolic function, which can be assessed by the geometric (GM, based on Teichholz formula) or 2 planimetric methods (PM, Simpson's derived and length area methods). HYPOTHESIS Systolic dysfunction (SyD) may be observed in dogs with mitral valve disease (MVD) and is better assessed by PM than GM,(More)
OBJECTIVES There is a growing understanding of the complexity of interplay between renal and cardiovascular systems in both health and disease. The medical profession has adopted the term "cardiorenal syndrome" (CRS) to describe the pathophysiological relationship between the kidney and heart in disease. CRS has yet to be formally defined and described by(More)
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