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A biomechanical study of 13 runners which consisted of 2 male sprinters, 5 experienced joggers, and 6 elite long-distance runners were studied. We obtained hip, knee, and ankle joints motions in the sagittal plane and electromyographic data from specific muscle groups. As the speed of gait increased, the length of stance phase progressively decreased from(More)
The initiation of gait was studied utilizing electromyography, force-plate data, measurements of walking velocities, and ranges of motion of joints, all of which demonstrated that gait is initiated by the body becoming unbalanced in such a way as to permit a subject to pick one foot the ground in order to take the first step. The subsequent transition of(More)
The foot has been studied in walking, running and jogging using high speed cinema photography in the laboratory for gait analysis in the Shriner's Hospital for Crippled Children, San Francisco. During running, as well as in walking, the extrinsic toe flexors restrain progression of the tibia. The extrinsic extensors accelerate the tibia over the fixed foot.(More)
The popliteus muscle was studied during both normal gait and a series of planned exercises. Its activity during the walking cycle was shown to begin shortly before heel-strike and to continue throughout three-quarters of the stance phase. During the exercises the muscle was active during internal rotation of the tibia on the femur, and during normal gait(More)
The role of the calf muscles during the single-limb stance phase of gait was assessed in fifteen normal subjects and in seven with either an amputation or a neuromuscular deficit. Normal activity of the muscles, paralysis by nerve blocks, and stability versus instability of the ankle were studied. Pelvic displacement and velocity, step length, and step time(More)
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