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Somatic hypermutation introduces point mutations into immunoglobulin genes in germinal centre B cells during an immune response. The reaction is initiated by cytosine deamination by the activation-induced deaminase (AID) and completed by error-prone processing of the resulting uracils by mismatch and base excision repair factors. Somatic hypermutation(More)
The dendritic cell (DC) is a master regulator of immune responses. Pathogenic viruses subvert normal immune function in DCs through the expression of immune antagonists. Understanding how these antagonists interact with the host immune system requires knowledge of the underlying genetic regulatory network that operates during an uninhibited antiviral(More)
BACKGROUND Auditory hair cells spontaneously regenerate following injury in birds but not mammals. A better understanding of the molecular events underlying hair cell regeneration in birds may allow for identification and eventually manipulation of relevant pathways in mammals to stimulate regeneration and restore hearing in deaf patients. (More)
Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes play an important role in the success of organ transplantation and are associated with autoimmune and infectious diseases. Current DNA-based genotyping methods, including Sanger sequence-based typing (SSBT), have identified a high degree of polymorphism. This level of polymorphism makes high-resolution HLA genotyping(More)
Aberrant targeting of the enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) results in the accumulation of somatic mutations in ≈ 25% of expressed genes in germinal center B cells. Observations in Ung(-/-) Msh2(-/-) mice suggest that many other genes efficiently repair AID-induced lesions, so that up to 45% of genes may actually be targeted by AID. It is(More)
Somatic hypermutation (SHM) diversifies the V region of Ig genes and underlies the process of affinity maturation, in which B lymphocytes producing high-affinity Abs are generated and selected. SHM is triggered in activated B cells by deamination of deoxycytosine residues mediated by activation-induced deaminase (AID). Whereas mistargeting of SHM and AID(More)
To ensure survival, our immune system must overcome the action of pathogen-encoded immune antagonists, such as influenza A nonstructural protein-1 (NS1). NS1 subverts the host interferon (IFN) response at multiple levels and blocks the induction of IFN-β, a critical antiviral cytokine. This immune antagonism can be overcome in some cases. It has been shown(More)
This study presents performance specifications of an in-house developed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing assay using next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 253 samples, previously characterized for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 were included in this study, which were typed at high-resolution using a combination of(More)
Human leucocyte antigens (HLA) typing has been a challenge due to extreme polymorphism of the HLA genes and limitations of the current technologies and protocols used for their characterization. Recently, next-generation sequencing techniques have been shown to be a well-suited technology for the complete characterization of the HLA genes. However, a(More)
BACKGROUND Gene coregulation across a population is an important aspect of the considerable variability of the human immune response to virus infection. Methodology to investigate it must rely on a number of ingredients ranging from gene clustering to transcription factor enrichment analysis. RESULTS We have developed a methodology to investigate the gene(More)