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Because most colorectal carcinomas appear to arise from adenomas, studies of different stages of colorectal neoplasia may shed light on the genetic alterations involved in tumor progression. We looked for four genetic alterations (ras-gene mutations and allelic deletions of chromosomes 5, 17, and 18) in 172 colorectal-tumor specimens representing various(More)
Mutations in codon 12, 13, or 61 of one of the three ras genes, H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras, convert these genes into active oncogenes. Rapid assays for the detection of these point mutations have been developed recently and used to investigate the role mutated ras genes play in the pathogenesis of human tumors. It appeared that ras gene mutations can be found(More)
Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) regulate the activity of small guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins to control cellular functions. In general, GEFs turn on signaling by catalyzing the exchange from G-protein-bound GDP to GTP, whereas GAPs terminate signaling by inducing GTP hydrolysis. GEFs and GAPs are(More)
Reactive oxygen species are required for cell proliferation but can also induce apoptosis. In proliferating cells this paradox is solved by the activation of protein kinase B (PKB; also known as c-Akt), which protects cells from apoptosis. By contrast, it is unknown how quiescent cells that lack PKB activity are protected against cell death induced by(More)
Rap1 is a small, Ras-like GTPase that was first identified as a protein that could suppress the oncogenic transformation of cells by Ras. Rap1 is activated by several extracellular stimuli and may be involved in cellular processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, T-cell anergy and platelet activation. At least three different second(More)
The Forkhead transcription factors AFX, FKHR and FKHR-L1 are orthologues of DAF-16, a Forkhead factor that regulates longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we show that overexpression of these Forkhead transcription factors causes growth suppression in a variety of cell lines, including a Ras-transformed cell line and a cell line lacking the tumour(More)
cAMP is involved in a wide variety of cellular processes that were thought to be mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). However, cAMP also directly regulates Epac1 and Epac2, guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) for the small GTPases Rap1 and Rap2 (refs 2,3). Unfortunately, there is an absence of tools to discriminate between PKA- and Epac-mediated(More)
Tumor suppressor genes evolved as negative effectors of mitogen and nutrient signaling pathways, such that mutations in these genes can lead to pathological states of growth. Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a potentially devastating disease associated with mutations in two tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 and 2, that function as a complex to suppress signaling in(More)
During the evolution of metazoans and the rise of systemic hormonal regulation, the insulin-controlled class 1 phosphatidylinositol 3OH-kinase (PI3K) pathway was merged with the primordial amino acid-driven mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to control the growth and development of the organism. Insulin regulates mTOR function through a recently(More)
Little is known about the relative role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) and guanine exchange factor directly activated by cAMP (Epac) as mediators of cAMP action. We tested cAMP analogs for ability to selectively activate Epac1 or cAPK and discriminate between the binding sites of Epac and of cAPKI and cAPKII. We found that commonly used cAMP(More)