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The microcircuitry of the mammalian neocortex remains largely unknown. Although the neocortex could be composed of scores of precise circuits, an alternative possibility is that local connectivity is probabilistic or even random. To examine the precision and degree of determinism in the neocortical microcircuitry, we used optical probing to reconstruct(More)
An experimental difficulty in unraveling circuits in the mammalian nervous system is the identification of postsynaptic targets of a given neuron. Besides ultrastructural reconstructions, simultaneous recordings from pairs of cells in brain slices have been used to identify connected neurons. We describe in this paper a technique using calcium imaging that(More)
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