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Optical approaches for observing the dynamics of single molecules have required pico- to nanomolar concentrations of fluorophore in order to isolate individual molecules. However, many biologically relevant processes occur at micromolar ligand concentrations, necessitating a reduction in the conventional observation volume by three orders of magnitude. We(More)
The behavior of freestanding lipid bilayer membranes under the influence of dielectric force potentials was studied by trapping, holding, and rotating individual giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) inside dielectrophoretic microfield cages. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstructions of GUVs labeled with fluorescent(More)
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