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Knowledge of mammalian diversity is still surprisingly disparate, both regionally and taxonomically. Here, we present a comprehensive assessment of the conservation status and distribution of the world's mammals. Data, compiled by 1700+ experts, cover all 5487 species, including marine mammals. Global macroecological patterns are very different for land and(More)
Most animals and plants need to send signals and rely on some sort of response. For an active receptor of signals, virtually all the signal transmissions that litter the environment, bar those that are functional at any given moment, can be described as 'noise'. I concentrate here on some primate examples where loud calls combine with 'loud' colouring and(More)
Plant toxins are sequestered by many animals and the toxicity is frequently advertised by aposematic displays to deter potential predators. Such 'unpalatability by appropriation' is common in many invertebrate groups and also found in a few vertebrate groups. However, potentially lethal toxicity by acquisition has so far never been reported for a placental(More)
T anzania and Zambia are petitioning the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) to “downlist” the conservation status of their elephants to allow sale of stockpiled ivory. But just 2 years after CITES placed a 9-year moratorium on future ivory sales ( 1), elephant poaching is on the rise. The petitioning countries are major sources(More)
† Also at SearchSpace Ltd., London. Abstract: This paper presents the details of a novel search strategy based on randomly remapped search spaces. The algorithm, the MultiMorphic Hill Climber (MMHC), uses multiple base changes in the encoding of potential solutions, so as to adjust the shape and form of a search problem. We describe the algorithm’s(More)
This paper discusses ‘the shape of space’, in terms of search algorithms and traversal operators. It is pointed out that it is the combination of traversal operators and representation that gives rise to a fitness landscape. This provides an intuitive background to recent discussions on the formal limitations on search algorithms. Dynamic and random(More)
Recent abundance determinations based on recombination lines in several emission-line nebulae yield ionic abundances several times larger than those derived from forbidden lines. These results cast uncertainty over all abundance determinations in such objects. One possible explanation for these discrepancies frequently cited in the literature is the(More)
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