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Signals derived from the rat motor cortex can be used for controlling one-dimensional movements of a robot arm. It remains unknown, however, whether real-time processing of cortical signals can be employed to reproduce, in a robotic device, the kind of complex arm movements used by primates to reach objects in space. Here we recorded the simultaneous(More)
Appendage formation is organized by signals from discrete sources that presumably act upon downstream genes to control growth and patterning. The Drosophila vestigial gene is selectively required for wing-cell proliferation, and is sufficient to induce outgrowths of wing tissue from eyes, legs and antennae. Different signals activate separate enhancers to(More)
Data from 55 consecutive patients with low-grade astrocytomas treated between 1982 and 1990 were analyzed to determine specific outcome factors, including time to recurrence, incidence of anaplastic transformation, and survival. Gender, type of symptoms, contrast enhancement, and timing of radiation therapy were not significant in determining outcome.(More)
Somatic cell nuclear transfer and transcription-factor-based reprogramming revert adult cells to an embryonic state, and yield pluripotent stem cells that can generate all tissues. Through different mechanisms and kinetics, these two reprogramming methods reset genomic methylation, an epigenetic modification of DNA that influences gene expression, leading(More)
An RNA model system consisting of an oligomer binding to a 4-nt overhang at the 5' end of a hairpin stem provides thermodynamic parameters for helix-helix interfaces. In a sequence-dependent manner, oligomers bind up to 1000-fold more tightly adjacent to the hairpin stem than predicted for binding to a free tetramer at 37 degrees C. For the interface (/) in(More)
ID elements are short interspersed repetitive DNA elements (SINEs) which have amplified in rodent genomes via retroposition, a process involving an RNA intermediate. BC1, an abundant ID-related transcript, is transcribed from a conserved, single-copy gene in rodents. The gene encoding BC1 RNA represents one of the earliest and possibly the first(More)
Proteases are crucial for cancer metastasis, but due to lack of assays, their role in intravasation has not yet been tested. We have developed a human Alu sequence PCR-based assay to quantitate intravasated cells in an in vivo model. We demonstrated that metalloproteinases (MMPs), and most likely MMP-9, are required for intravasation by showing that(More)
Control of messenger RNA (mRNA) stability serves as an important mechanism for regulating gene expression. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants that overaccumulate soluble methionine (Met) revealed that the gene for cystathionine gamma-synthase (CGS), the key enzyme in Met biosynthesis, is regulated at the level of mRNA stability. Transfection experiments with(More)
Although T-type Ca(2+) channels are implicated in nociception, the function of specific subtypes has not been well defined. Here, we compared pain susceptibility in mice lacking Ca(V)3.2 subtype of T-type Ca(2+) channels (Ca(V)3.2(-/-)) with wild-type littermates in various behavioral models of pain to explore the roles of Ca(V)3.2 in the processing of(More)