J Kenneth Roberts

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Functional analysis of a barley high-pI alpha-amylase gene promoter has identified a gibberellin (GA) response complex in the region between -174 and -108. The sequence of the central element, TAACAAA, is very similar to the c-Myb and v-Myb consensus binding site. We investigated the possibility that a GA-regulated Myb transactivates alpha-amylase gene(More)
We show that a transient lactic fermentation provides the signal triggering ethanol production in hypoxic maize root tips. The signal is cytoplasmic pH. This interaction between lactic and ethanolic fermentation permits tight cytoplasmic pH regulation during hypoxia--cytoplasmic pH remaining near neutrality for several hours. Mutant roots unable to(More)
Tolerance of anoxia in maize root tips is greatly improved when seedlings are pretreated with 2 to 4 h of hypoxia. We describe the patterns of protein synthesis during hypoxic acclimation and anoxia. We quantified the incorporation of [(35)S]methionine into total protein and 262 individual proteins under different oxygen tensions. Proteins synthesized most(More)
When soybean Glycine max var Wayne seedlings are shifted from a normal growth temperature of 28 degrees C up to 40 degrees C (heat shock or HS), there is a dramatic change in protein synthesis. A new set of proteins known as heat shock proteins (HSPs) is produced and normal protein synthesis is greatly reduced. A brief 10-minute exposure to 45 degrees C(More)
(31)P-, (13)C-, and (15)N-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to determine the roles of malate, succinate, Ala, Asp, Glu, Gln, and gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) in the energy metabolism and regulation of cytoplasmic pH in hypoxic maize (Zea mays L.) root tips. Nitrogen status was manipulated by perfusing root tips with ammonium sulfate prior to(More)
We present evidence that cytoplasmic acidosis is a cause of meristematic death in hypoxic root tips of maize and pea seedlings. Usually, leakage of acid from the vacuole is responsible for cytoplasmic acidosis. Leakage of acid, which occurs earlier during hypoxia in pea root tips than in maize root tips, appears to account for the lower tolerance of peas(More)
Titration curves plotting chemical shift vs. pH for inorganic phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate in solutions of various composition are presented. Physiological concentrations of K+ (0.1 M) and Mg2+ (5 mM) are shown to significantly shift the titration curve. The Mg2+ effect can be partly or completely reversed by addition of sufficient quantities of(More)
We showed previously that wheat germ extracts contain two forms of protein synthesis initiation factor 4F that have very similar functional properties (Browning, K. S., Lax, S. R., and Ravel, J. M. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 11228-11232). One form, designated eIF-4F, is a complex containing two subunits, p220 and p26. The other form, designated eIF-(iso)4F,(More)
Although synthesis of the cytosolic maize albumin b-32 had been shown to be controlled by the Opaque-2 regulatory locus, its function was unknown. We show here that b-32 is a member of the large and widely distributed class of toxic plant proteins with ribosome-inactivating activity. These ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are RNA N-glycosidases that(More)
We present two pieces of evidence that regulation of cytoplasmic pH near neutrality is a prerequisite for survival of root tips during hypoxia. First, blackeye peas and navy beans show earlier cytoplasmic acidosis under hypoxia than soybeans or pumpkin or maize, and die earlier. Second, when cytoplasmic acidosis in maize root tips is greatly retarded by(More)