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Although there has been recent interest in the study of childhood and adolescent brain development, very little is known about normal brain development in the first few months of life. In older children, there are regional differences in cortical gray matter development, whereas cortical gray and white matter growth after birth has not been studied to a(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to investigate the development of white matter (WM). However, information about this development in healthy children younger than 2 years of age is lacking, and most previous studies have only measured fractional anisotropy (FA). This study used FA and radial and axonal diffusivities(More)
Brain development in the first 2 years after birth is extremely dynamic and likely plays an important role in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. Knowledge regarding this period is currently quite limited. We studied structural brain development in healthy subjects from birth to 2. Ninety-eight children received structural MRI(More)
Several lines of evidence have implicated the existence of the brain's default network during passive or undirected mental states. Nevertheless, results on the emergence of the default network in very young pediatric subjects are lacking. Using resting functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy pediatric subjects between 2 weeks and 2 years of age, we(More)
Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that human brain networks have economic small-world topology and modular organization, enabling efficient information transfer among brain regions. However, it remains largely unknown how the small-world topology and modular organization of human brain networks emerge and develop. Using longitudinal MRI data of(More)
HIV associated dementia (HAD) is the most advanced stage of central nervous system disease caused by HIV infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with HAD exhibit greater cerebral and basal ganglia atrophy than non-demented HIV+ (HND) patients. However, the extent to which white matter is affected in HAD patients compared to HND patients(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The early postnatal period is perhaps the most dynamic phase of white matter development. We hypothesized that the early postnatal development of the corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts could be studied in unsedated healthy neonates by using novel approaches to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and quantitative tractography. (More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Unlike conventional functional MR imaging where external sensory/cognitive paradigms are needed to specifically activate different regions of the brain, resting functional connectivity MR imaging acquires images in the absence of cognitive demands (a resting condition) and detects brain regions, which are highly temporally correlated.(More)
OBJECTIVE Aerobic fitness (VO(2) peak) and obesity risk (OR) may impact brain health. This study examined hemispheric and segment specific relationships between VO(2) peak, OR and cerebral white-matter (CWM) integrity in the cingulum brain region in healthy older adults. METHODS Fifteen subjects (66±6 years) completed VO(2) peak testing and MRI of the(More)
PURPOSE To retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and its relationship to obstetric and neonatal risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS Pregnant women were recruited for a prospective study of neonatal brain development; the study was approved by the institutional review board and complied with HIPAA regulations.(More)