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We show that a portion of the TM2 domain regulates the sensitivity of beta subunit-containing rat neuronal nicotinic AChR to the ganglionic blocker mecamylamine, such that the substitution of 4 amino acids of the muscle beta subunit sequence into the neuronal beta4 sequence decreases the potency of mecamylamine by a factor of 200 and eliminates any(More)
Fusaric acid is a mycotoxin with low to moderate toxicity, which is of concern since it might be synergistic with other cooccurring mycotoxins. Fusaric acid is widespread on corn and corn-based food and feeds and is frequently found in grain, where Fusarium spp. are also isolated. We surveyed 78 strains of Fusarium moniliforme, F. crookwellense, F.(More)
Fumonisins are produced by Fusarium moniliforme F. verticillioides) and other Fusarium that grow on corn worldwide. They cause fatal toxicoses of horses and swine. Their effects in humans are unclear, but epidemiologic evidence suggests that consumption of fumonisin-contaminated corn contributes to human esophageal cancer in southern Africa and China. Much(More)
Mycological screening of two separate lots of corn samples that caused field cases of equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) revealed heavy contamination with the fungus Fusarium moniliforme. Neutral and acidic fractions of a chloroform-methanol (1:1, v/v) extract of the corn were evaluated for toxicity using rat primary hepatocytes. The extracts had little(More)
Epichloë typhina, a clavicipitaceous systemic phytopathogen, was isolated from two varieties and three hybrids of tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae). The morphology of the fescue isolates was compared with E. typhina isolated from bent grass (Agrostis perennans). In all isolates, conidia were identical and were typical of E. typhina. In fescue grasses the(More)
Fumonisins and fusaric acid (FA) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme and other Fusarium which grow on corn. Fumonisins cause animal toxicities associated with F. moniliforme and, like F. monliforme, they are suspected human oesophageal carcinogens. Toxic synergism was obtained by simultaneous administration of FA and fumonisin B1 to chicks in(More)
Toxic interactions of fusaric acid and fumonisin B1, two mycotoxins produced byFusarium moniliforme, were studied in the chicken embryo. The yolk sacs of fertile White Leghorn eggs were injected before incubation with separate and combined solutions of either fusaric acid and or fumonisin B1. The toxins were administered in either a sterile 10 mM buffered(More)
Media are described for the isolaton of Fusarium graminearum in the perithecial state, Gibberella zeae, and for the production of F-2 (zearalenone) by Fusarium species. On soil extract-corn meal agar isolated medium, G. Zeae produced perithecia in 9 to 14 days under a 12-h photoperiod. Species of Fusarium were screened for F-2 production on a liquid medium.(More)