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OBJECTIVE To study risk factors for HIV infection among women in Nairobi, Kenya, as the epidemic moves beyond high-risk groups. DESIGN A cross-sectional case-control study among women attending two peri-urban family planning clinics. METHODS A total of 4404 women were enrolled after giving written informed consent. Information on risk factors was(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify the risk factors for gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomonas infections among low risk women in Nairobi, Kenya. METHOD In a cross-sectional study, 4,404 women attending two peri-urban family planning clinics between 1989 and 1991 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and examined for signs of sexually transmitted disease(More)
Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1 postpartum. Infants of nine mothers, who did not receive DMPA,(More)
Most of the small increased risk in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) associated with the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) appears to be caused by bacterial contamination of the endometrial cavity at the time of insertion. This randomized clinical trial of 1813 women in Nairobi, Kenya, assessed the effectiveness of 200 mg of doxycycline given orally(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between HIV-1 infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) among women at relatively low risk for both conditions. DESIGN A case-control study comparing women with cytological evidence of IN (cases) with those without IN (controls) and HIV-1 serostatus as the principal exposure of interest. METHODS A(More)
BACKGROUND Few epidemiological investigations of invasive cervical cancer have been conducted in Sub-Saharan African populations. METHODS Using information collected as part of the hospital-based World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives, we examined potential risk factors for invasive cervical cancer(More)
Heterosexual transmission is the predominant mode of spread of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in most of the world. Whether the use of hormonal contraceptives, IUDs and spermicides is associated with an increased or decreased risk for HIV acquisition remains controversial. Several mechanisms whereby contraceptive methods may influence the(More)
Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine: (a) the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection among women attending family planning clinics in Nairobi; and (b) the associations between contraceptive use and HIV infection. METHODS History, clinical examination and laboratory tests were used to obtain data from 4404 women attending family planning clinics(More)
This paper presents the results of experience in identifying maternal deaths through "networking." In a survey of child health in coastal Kenya, women of reproductive ages were asked about their knowledge of maternal deaths in the villages. Thirty-five maternal deaths were ultimately identified in the study area, which led to an estimate of maternal(More)