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INTRODUCTION Transfer of glucose across the human placenta is directly proportional to maternal glucose concentrations even when these are well above the physiological range. This study investigates the relationship between maternal and fetal glucose concentrations and transfer across the placenta. METHODS Transfer of d-glucose, (3)H-3-o-methyl-d-glucose(More)
INTRODUCTION Placental glutamine synthesis has been demonstrated in animals and is thought to increase the availability of this metabolically important amino acid to the fetus. Glutamine is of fundamental importance for cellular replication, cellular function and inter-organ nitrogen transfer. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of(More)
The mechanisms by which amino acids are transferred across the human placenta are fundamental to our understanding of foetal nutrition. Amino acid transfer across the human placenta is dependent on transport across both the microvillous and basal plasma membranes of the placental syncytiotrophoblast, and on metabolism within the syncytiotrophoblast.(More)
Both maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations during pregnancy and placental amino acid transporter gene expression have been associated with development of the offspring in terms of body composition and bone structure. Several amino acid transporter genes have vitamin D response elements in their promoters suggesting the possible linkage of(More)
Alterations in expression of the imprinted gene PHLDA2 are linked to low birth weight in both humans and the mouse. However birth weight is a summary measure of fetal growth and provides little information on the growth rate of the fetus in early and late pregnancy. To examine the relation of PHLDA2 expression with rates of fetal growth and explore(More)
INTRODUCTION Placental function is an important determinant of fetal growth, and fetal growth influences obesity risk in childhood and adult life. Here we investigated how FTO and MC4R gene variants linked with obesity relate to patterns of fetal growth and to placental FTO expression. METHODS Southampton Women's Survey children (n = 1990) with(More)
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