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Gene expression profiling of human substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) from Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, was examined employing high density microarrays. We identified alterations in the expression of 137 genes, with 68 down regulated and 69 up regulated. The down regulated genes belong to signal transduction, protein degradation (e.g.(More)
Test coverage is sometimes used as a way to measure how thoroughly software is tested. Coverage is used by software developers and sometimes by vendors to indicate their confidence in the readiness of their software. This survey studies and compares 17 coverage-based testing tools focusing on, but not restricted to coverage measurement. We also survey(More)
Software product line engineering (SPLE) takes advantage of the commonalities and predicts variabilities among members of a family to create efficient means of producing those members. Different approaches use different methods for defining the product line and producing members of the product line. We describe and demonstrate through a case study the FAST(More)
We present a case study on fault injection testing at the interface level between components of a distributed system. We give an introduction to the fault-injection technique and explain the motivation for using this method. We enumerate the research issues involved in the study and describe the methodology used to investigate them. Finally we discuss the(More)
Many approaches have been undertaken to understand Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the heterogeneity of the etiologic factors makes it difficult to define the clincally most important factor determining the onset and progression of the disease. However, there is increasing evidence that the previously so-called "secondary factors" such as a disturbed glucose(More)
Although there are a number of hypotheses to explain the pathobiochemistry of Parkinson's disease (PD), the one on oxidative stress (OS) has gained major interest. The evidence for OS participation as a cause of PD can be summarized as follows: 1) OS is involved in physiological aging, 2) there is ample evidence that OS is significantly enhanced in PD(More)
While RNAi has traditionally relied on RNA duplexes, early evaluation of siRNAs demonstrated activity of the guide strand in the absence of the passenger strand. However, these single strands lacked the activity of duplex RNAs. Here, we report the systematic use of chemical modifications to optimize single-strand RNA (ssRNA)-mediated mRNA knockdown. We(More)