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Recent advances with the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system promise an improved approach to genome editing. However, the applicability and efficiency of this system in model organisms, such as zebrafish, are little studied. Here, we report that RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease efficiently facilitates genome editing in(More)
Autophagy is a lysosome-based degradation pathway. During autophagy, lysosomes fuse with autophagosomes to form autolysosomes. Following starvation-induced autophagy, nascent lysosomes are formed from autolysosomal membranes through an evolutionarily conserved cellular process, autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), which is critical for maintaining(More)
The ability to engineer genomes in a specific, systematic, and cost-effective way is critical for functional genomic studies. Recent advances using the CRISPR-associated single-guide RNA system (Cas9/sgRNA) illustrate the potential of this simple system for genome engineering in a number of organisms. Here we report an effective and inexpensive method for(More)
Cytosolic inflammasome complexes mediated by a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) defend against pathogen infection by activating caspase 1. Pyrin, a candidate PRR, can bind to the inflammasome adaptor ASC to form a caspase 1-activating complex. Mutations in the Pyrin-encoding gene, MEFV, cause a human autoinflammatory disease known as familial(More)
miRNA globally deregulates human carcinoma. A critical open question is how many miRNAs functionally participate in cancer development, particularly in metastasis. We systematically evaluate the capability of all known human miRNAs to regulate certain metastasis-relevant cell behaviours. To perform the(More)
Dysfunction of β-cell is one of major characteristics in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The combination of obesity and type 2 diabetes, characterized as 'diabesity', is associated with elevated plasma free fatty acids (FFAs). Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of FFA-induced β-cell dysfunction. However, molecular mechanisms(More)
The applications of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cells in regenerative medicine has encountered a long-standing challenge: how can we efficiently obtain mature cell types from hPSCs? Attempts to address this problem are hindered by the complexity of controlling cell fate commitment and the lack of sufficient developmental knowledge for guiding(More)
Pigs are ideal organ donors for xenotransplantation and an excellent model for studying human diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are used widely for gene targeting in various model animals. Here, we developed a strategy using TALENs to target the GGTA1, Parkin and DJ-1 genes in the porcine(More)
Endothelial cells (ECs) respond to changes in mechanical forces, leading to the modulation of signaling networks and cell function; an example is the inhibition of EC proliferation by steady laminar flow. MicroRNAs (miRs) are short noncoding 20-22 nucleotide RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of target genes at the posttranscriptional level. This(More)