J. J. Spencer

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cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been implicated in cocaine addiction because (1) cocaine reinforcement is mediated by dopamine receptors that modulate cAMP formation, and (2) repeated exposure to cocaine upregulates the cAMP system in NAc neurons. This study tested PKA involvement in cocaine self-administration and(More)
Selective D1 dopamine agonists represent a potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Here we report that systemic injections of the novel D1 agonist ABT-431 lack the ability to induce cocaine-seeking behavior, and completely attenuate the ability of cocaine to induce this behavior in rats tested in a reinstatement paradigm. Similar(More)
This paper argues that structural characteristics of knowledge-diffusion networks, such as density levels, centralization levels, and the presence of global knowledge brokers, contribute to the emergence of dominant designs and the competitiveness of countries' firms and industries. It further suggests that national institutional structures and(More)
The price of anarchy quantifies the inefficiency that occurs in the total system objective in the user optimization as compared to the system optimization setting. It is well known that this inefficiency occurs due to lack of coordination among the competitors in the system. In this thesis, we study the price of anarchy in a Bertrand oligopoly market by(More)
— Internet is the most widespread medium to express our views and ideas and a lucrative platform for delivering the products. For this intention, search engine plays a key role. The information or data about the web pages are stored in an index database of the search engine for use in later queries. Web spam refers to a host of techniques to challenge the(More)
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