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The impact was examined of exposing rats to two life experiences of a very different nature (stress and learning) on synaptic structures in hippocampal area CA3. Rats were subjected to either (i) chronic restraint stress for 21 days, and/or (ii) spatial training in a Morris water maze. At the behavioural level, restraint stress induced an impairment of(More)
Cannabinoids and opioids are widely consumed drugs of abuse that produce motor depression, in part via respective activation of the cannabinoid subtype 1 receptor (CB1R) and the mu-opioid receptor (muOR), in the striatal circuitry originating in the caudate putamen nucleus (CPN). Thus, the CB1R and muOR may show similar targeting in the CPN. To test this(More)
The circuitry of the human brain is formed by neuronal networks embedded into astroglial syncytia. The astrocytes perform numerous functions, providing for the overall brain homeostasis, assisting in neurogenesis, determining the micro-architecture of the grey matter, and defending the brain through evolutionary conserved astrogliosis programs. Astroglial(More)
Ageing is accompanied by a decline in neurogenesis and in polysialylated isoforms of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) expression within the hippocampus and by elevated basal levels of circulating corticosterone. In a companion study, we demonstrated that suppression of corticosterone by adrenalectomy increased neurogenesis and PSA-NCAM expression in(More)
The role of the monoamine serotonin (5-HT) in modulating the neural networks underlying axial locomotor movements was studied in an adult amphibian urodele, Pleurodeles waltl. 5-HT was applied to an in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation of P. waltl, which displayed fictive axial locomotor patterns following bath application of N-methyl-D-aspartate (5(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by inflammation within the CNS. This inflammatory response is associated with production of nitric oxide (NO) and NO-related species that nitrosylate thiols. We postulated that MS patients would exhibit an antibody (Ab) response directed against proteins containing S-nitrosocysteine (SNO-cysteine) and showed that(More)
The entorhinal-hippocampal circuit is severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we demonstrate that amyloid-β (Aβ) differentially affects primary cultured astrocytes derived from the entorhinal cortex (EC) and from the hippocampus from non-transgenic controls and 3xTg-AD transgenic mice. Exposure to 100 nM of Aβ resulted in increased expression(More)
Age-dependent cognitive impairments have been correlated with functional and structural modifications in the hippocampal formation. In particular, the brain endogenous steroid pregnenolone-sulfate (Preg-S) is a cognitive enhancer whose hippocampal levels have been linked physiologically to cognitive performance in senescent animals. However, the mechanism(More)
Functional recovery following a complete unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway in adult rats was studied. We examined the effect of training on the spontaneous or induced postural bias following the lesion. Two tasks measuring lateralization were used to assess the lesion-induced postural bias: spontaneous asymmetry was evaluated in the Y-maze,(More)
Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and is conserved in many species, from rodents to humans. Myostatin inactivation can induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, while its overexpression or systemic administration causes muscle atrophy. As it represents a potential target(More)