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BACKGROUND The immuno-privileged status of the testis is essential to the maintenance of its functions, and innate immunity is likely to play a key role in limiting harmful viral infections, as demonstrated in the rat. In men mumps virus infects Leydig cells and has deleterious effects on testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The aim of this study(More)
Radical nephrectomy with total surgical removal remains the standard treatment for locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 2009. In the majority of cases such surgery is performed via an open route while it sometimes necessitates the involvement of a multidisciplinary team. Adjuvant and neo-adjuvant strategies using anti-angiogenic drugs are(More)
Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) are a heterogeneous group of tumors whose pathological aspects, molecular pathways and genetic bases differ. Study of RCC familial predisposition syndromes has enabled a better understanding of activated molecular pathways. Five signalling pathways have emerged: VHL/HIF/VEGF and mTOR pathways in clear cell RCC, C-MET and the(More)
For a long time, advanced or metastatic renal carcinoma has presented a difficult therapeutic challenge in oncology practice. Only a few years ago, treatment mainly involved immunotherapy, which frequently led to stalemate. In just a few years, new therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factors and their receptors (VEGF-R): sorafenib, sunitinib and(More)
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