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Differences in grading signal hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging may explain earlier reported conflicting results in studies of normal aging and dementia. We designed a new rating scale in which periventricular and white matter signal hyperintensities as well as basal ganglia and infratentorial signal hyperintensities are rated separately in a(More)
There is now widespread agreement that serial brain MRI is useful in monitoring treatments designed to modify the course of multiple sclerosis. It has been less clear whether gadolinium enhancement is needed. We therefore compared the relative sensitivity of long repetition time (TR) spin echo (SE) and gadolinium enhanced short TR SE sequences in detecting(More)
This study reports on the neurophysiological measurements that were performed in the context of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with intravenously administered 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in 70 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS). A beneficial effect of 4-AP was found for both visual evoked response and eye movement(More)
In a prospective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study we evaluated the prevalence and severity of white matter changes in 29 patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and 24 age-matched healthy elderly, all without cerebrovascular risk factors. The AD patients were divided into two groups according to age at onset of symptoms, one with presenile onset AD (n(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered to be a highly sensitive modality for visualizing white matter abnormalities. Estimations of its specificity are far less positive. However, diagnostic specificity depends upon both the inherent qualities of MRI and on the quality of image interpretation. Systematic and detailed analysis of many image elements,(More)
Serial brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging detects active lesions 5-10 times more frequently than the occurrence of clinical changes in patients with early relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Based on monthly unenhanced and gadolinium enhanced MR findings in 23 unselected and untreated patients, the power of an MS(More)
In a recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, we demonstrated efficacy of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in improving disability of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we describe the relationship between dosage, serum level, efficacy, and safety of intravenously and orally administered 4-AP in the same group of 70 MS patients.(More)
Proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain was performed in 35 patients with degenerative cerebral disorders: 24 patients had demyelinating (white matter) disorders and 11 patients had neuronal (gray matter) disorders. Four grades of demyelination and three grades of cerebral atrophy were distinguished by magnetic resonance imaging(More)
Raised urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). We have examined the role of endothelial dysfunction as a possible explanation for this association in 94 NIDDM patients by investigating UAE, new cardiovascular events, and plasma concentration of von(More)
In 29 diabetic subjects with or without symptoms of diabetic peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, the association between the pupillary light reflex (the latency of the constriction of the pupil) and various sensory and motor neural measurements, duration of diabetes and quality of glycaemic control was evaluated. Compared with normal subjects the latency(More)