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OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to evaluate the evidence linking attachment insecurity to illness. Attachment theory describes lifelong patterns of response to threat that are learned in the interaction between an infant and his or her primary caregiver. Despite its biopsychosocial domain, attachment theory has only recently been applied to(More)
Understanding the control of eye growth may lead to the prevention of nearsightedness (myopia). Chicks develop refractive errors in response to defocusing lenses by changing the rate of eye elongation. Changes in optical image quality and the optical signal in lens compensation are not understood. Monochromatic ocular aberrations were measured in 16 chicks(More)
This article examines a model of illness as a stressor that activates an individual's characteristic attachment behaviors. These behaviors are the result of the attachment system, a mammalian trait that exists in order to maximize the odds of survival of an infant born without the necessary maturation for immediate independence. Attachment concepts, such as(More)
The photoreceptor/RPE complex must maintain a delicate balance between maximizing the absorption of photons for vision and retinal image quality while simultaneously minimizing the risk of photodamage when exposed to bright light. We review the recent discovery of two new effects of light exposure on the photoreceptor/RPE complex in the context of current(More)
In an earlier paper the author introduced the statistic η π i i jj j m m = = ∑ 1 as a measure of the " mixing time " or " time to stationarity " in a finite irreducible discrete time Markov chain with stationary distribution {p j } and m ij as the mean first passage time from state i to state j of the Markov chain. This was shown to be independent of the(More)
Adaptive optics imaging of cone photoreceptors has provided unique insight into the structure and function of the human visual system and has become an important tool for both basic scientists and clinicians. Recent advances in adaptive optics retinal imaging instrumentation and methodology have allowed us to expand beyond cone imaging. Multi-wavelength and(More)
In vivo two-photon imaging through the pupil of the primate eye has the potential to become a useful tool for functional imaging of the retina. Two-photon excited fluorescence images of the macaque cone mosaic were obtained using a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope, overcoming the challenges of a low numerical aperture, imperfect(More)
PURPOSE Autofluorescence fundus imaging using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) allows for imaging of individual retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vivo. In this study, the potential of retinal damage was investigated by using radiant exposure levels that are 2 to 150 times those used for routine imaging. METHODS Macaque(More)
PURPOSE Adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) has been shown to be effective in transducing inner retinal neurons after intravitreal injection in several species. However, results in nonprimates may not be predictive of transduction in the human inner retina, because of differences in eye size and the specialized morphology of the high-acuity human(More)
BACKGROUND Although it has been suggested that alterations of nerve fiber layer vasculature may be involved in the etiology of eye diseases, including glaucoma, it has not been possible to examine this vasculature in-vivo. This report describes a novel imaging method, fluorescence adaptive optics (FAO) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), that makes(More)