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Bcl-2 is an integral membrane protein located mainly on the outer membrane of mitochondria. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevents cells from undergoing apoptosis in response to a variety of stimuli. Cytosolic cytochrome c is necessary for the initiation of the apoptotic program, suggesting a possible connection between Bcl-2 and cytochrome c, which is normally(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop protocols to photograph and evaluate retinal vascular abnormalities in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study; to test reproducibility of the grading system; and to explore the relationship of these microvascular changes with blood pressure. DESIGN Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS Among 4(More)
Thiol and disulfide forms of glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were measured in plasma from 24 healthy individuals aged 25-35 and redox potential values (E(h)) for thiol/disulfide couples were calculated using the Nernst equation. Although the concentration of GSH (2.8 +/- 0.9 microM) was much greater than that of GSSG (0.14 +/- 0.04 microM), the redox(More)
TGFbeta signaling is initiated when the type I receptor phosphorylates the MAD-related protein, Smad2, on C-terminal serine residues. This leads to Smad2 association with Smad4, translocation to the nucleus, and regulation of transcriptional responses. Here we demonstrate that Smad7 is an inhibitor of TGFbeta signaling. Smad7 prevents TGFbeta-dependent(More)
This review provides a model for the role of oxidative stress in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiological studies of diet, environmental and behavioral risk factors suggest that oxidative stress is a contributing factor of AMD. Pathological studies indicate that damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is an early event(More)
Activation of apoptosis is associated with generation of reactive oxygen species. The present research shows that superoxide is produced by mitochondria isolated from apoptotic cells due to a switch from the normal 4-electron reduction of O2 to a 1-electron reduction when cytochrome c is released from mitochondria. Bcl-2, a protein that protects against(More)
Oligodendrocytes are derived from glial precursors that arise from the ventral neural tube early in development. In the developing chicken CNS, oligodendrocyte progenitors selectively express Nkx2.2 homeodomain transcription factor, raising the possibility that Nkx2.2 may directly regulate oligogliogenesis. In this study, we have examined Nkx2.2 expression(More)
Cardiac autonomic activity, as assessed by heart rate variability, has been found to be associated with postmyocardial infarction mortality, sudden death, and all-cause mortality. However, the association of heart rate variability and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) is not well described. The authors report on the association of baseline(More)
To relate cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability (HRV) with prevalent and incident hypertension at the population level, the authors examined a stratified random sample of 2,061 examinees from the biracial Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort. Baseline, supine, resting beat-to-beat heart rate data were collected. High(More)
OBJECTIVE Extracts of the Chinese herbal remedy Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF) have been reported to be effective in the treatment of patients with a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, but the mechanism of this therapeutic effect has not been completely delineated. The present study was designed to assess the effects of TWHF on the in(More)