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Darwin recognized that natural selection could not favor a trait in one species solely for the benefit of another species. The modern, selfish-gene view of the world suggests that cooperation between individuals, whether of the same species or different species, should be especially vulnerable to the evolution of noncooperators. Yet, cooperation is(More)
Systematists have access to multiple sources of character information in phylogenetic analysis. For example, it is not unusual to have nucleotide sequences from several different genes, or to have molecular and morphological data. How should diverse data be analyzed in phylogenetic analysis? Several methods have been proposed for the treatment of(More)
Replicate lineages of the bacteriophage phiX 174 adapted to growth at high temperature on either of two hosts exhibited high rates of identical, independent substitutions. Typically, a dozen or more substitutions accumulated in the 5.4-kilobase genome during propagation. Across the entire data set of nine lineages, 119 independent substitutions occurred at(More)
The existence of co-operation between species has been cast as a problem to the selfish-gene view of evolution: why does co-operation persist, when it would seem that individual selection should favor the unco-operative individual who exploits the co-operative tendencies of its partner and gives nothing in return? The recent literature has emphasized one(More)
High temperature inhibits the growth of the wild-type bacteriophage phiX174. Three different point mutations were identified that each recovered growth at high temperature. Two affected the major capsid protein (residues F188 and F242), and one affected the internal scaffolding protein (B114). One of the major capsid mutations (F242) is located in a beta(More)
The molecular basis of adaptation is a major focus of evolutionary biology, yet the dynamic process of adaptation has been explored only piecemeal. Experimental evolution of two bacteriophage lines under strong selection led to over a dozen nucleotide changes genomewide in each replicate. At least 96 percent of the amino acid substitutions appeared to be(More)
Temperature sensitivity and gonadal differentiation were studied in a turtle, Trachemys scripta, with temperature-dependent sex determination. Sex determination was sensitive to both the duration and magnitude of incubation temperature. Temperature exerted an "all or none" effect on the ovarian or testicular nature of most gonads, but affected the length of(More)
Following a sixty-year hiatus in western medicine, bacteriophages (phages) are again being advocated for treating and preventing bacterial infections. Are attempts to use phages for clinical and environmental applications more likely to succeed now than in the past? Will phage therapy and prophylaxis suffer the same fates as antibiotics--treatment failure(More)