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To define mechanisms regulating expression of M creatine kinase, the human gene including 5'-flanking DNA was cloned, characterized, and partially sequenced. The gene contains 8 exons interrupted by 7 introns spanning 17.5 kilobase pairs of DNA. The intron-exon splice sites were identified and conform to the GT-AG consensus rule. The TATA and CAAT boxes are(More)
To characterize the tissue-specific distribution and developmentally regulated expression of M and B creatine kinase mRNA in rats, total cellular RNA was isolated from adult rat tissues and from skeletal muscle, heart, brain and intestine at selected stages of development. Northern blots were prepared and hybridized with M and B subunit-specific probes(More)
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; acyl-CoA: (acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase, EC 1.3.99.3) is one of three similar enzymes that catalyze the initial step of fatty acid beta-oxidation. Definition of the primary structure of MCAD and the tissue distribution of its mRNA is of biochemical and clinical importance because of the recent recognition of(More)
Gastrocnemius muscle from treadmill trained rats was analyzed for creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme activities by agarose electrophoresis and M and B CK mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis. Total CK activity in exercise-trained (143 (SD 15) U/g) and control (154 (SD 16) U/g) muscles did not differ. CK-MB increased 220% in exercised-trained muscle compared to(More)
Creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) (CK) isoenzymes are crucial to energy metabolism, particularly in tissues with high energy requirements. Nuclear genes encode four known CK subunits: cytoplasmic muscle, cytoplasmic brain, ubiquitous mitochondrial (uMtCK), and sarcomeric mitochondrial (sMtCK). Herein, we report the isolation and complete structural(More)
Regulation of plasminogen activation by plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) is a critical feature of many biological processes. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces PAI-1 mRNA and protein in several types of cultured cells, including Hep G2 cells. The present study was performed to define mechanisms by which PAI-1 gene expression is(More)
Creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) plays an important role in energy metabolism in brain and muscle. Expression of CK isoenzymes is regulated during development and is tissue specific. To define the structures of canine CK isoenzymes and to elucidate the mechanism of regulation in their expression, CK cDNA clones from dog myocardium were isolated. Myocardial(More)
Pressure overload of the left ventricle induces synthesis of creatine kinase isoenzymes. To determine whether this response is associated with an altered pattern of creatine kinase gene expression, we induced arterial hypertension in rats by suprarenal aortic banding. After 4 days, left ventricular myocardium from hypertensive (n = 7) and normotensive,(More)
In humans and non-human primates, alternative cleavage and polyadenylation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) pre-mRNA transcripts results in two forms of mature mRNA, an unstable 3.2-kilobase (kb) form, and a relatively more stable 2.2-kb form. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) increase steady state levels of PAI-1 mRNA in Hep(More)
To identify factors potentially influencing expression of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), we characterized the human tissue-specific distribution of PAI-1 mRNA and the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on expression of steady state levels of PAI-1 mRNA and secretion of PAI-1 by Hep G2 cells. Two species of PAI-1 mRNA (3.2 and 2.2(More)