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Many flowering plants are polyploid, but crosses between individuals of different ploidies produce seeds that develop abnormally and usually abort. Often, seeds from interploidy crosses develop differently depending on whether the mother or father contributes more chromosome sets, suggesting that maternal and paternal genomes are not functionally(More)
T he present article is the fourth in a series of 6 documents focused on providing current guidelines for the standardization and interpretation of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The project was initiated by the Council on Clinical Cardiology of the American Heart Association. The rationale for this project and the process for its implementation were(More)
BACKGROUND Given the high incidence of sudden death in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and the efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, an appropriate tool for the prediction of sudden death is desirable. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has prognostic significance in CHF, and the stimuli for its production cause electrophysiological(More)
—This statement examines the relation of the resting ECG to its technology. Its purpose is to foster understanding of how the modern ECG is derived and displayed and to establish standards that will improve the accuracy and usefulness of the ECG in practice. Derivation of representative waveforms and measurements based on global intervals are described.(More)
Baseline wander makes interpretation ECG recordings difficult, especially the assessment of ST deviation. Eliminating baseline wander without distorting the ST segment is a problem. The traditional high pass filter with a 0.5 Hz low frequency cutoff effectively suppresses baseline but introduces considerable distortion in the level of the ST segment. This(More)
BACKGROUND CD146 is a well described homotypic adhesion molecule found on endothelial cells and a limited number of other cell types. In cells from the peripheral circulation, CD146 has also been reported to be on activated lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. The function associated with CD146 expression on lymphoid cells is unknown and very little(More)
OBJECTIVES We surveyed the literature to estimate prediction values for five common tests for risk of major arrhythmic events (MAEs) after myocardial infarction. We then determined feasibility of a staged risk stratification using combinations of noninvasive tests, reserving an electrophysiologic study (EPS) as the final test. BACKGROUND Improved(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to use the Framingham data base to devise and test an improvement in an electrocardiographic (ECG) voltage criterion for detecting left ventricular hypertrophy that is gender specific and adjusts for age and obesity. BACKGROUND Electrocardiographic detection of left ventricular hypertrophy has been receiving(More)
The year 1987 marks the centennial of electrocardiography. As Beamish reminds us, it was the first and foremost technical aid to the cardiologist. During the history of cardiovascular epidemiology, which dates back roughly forty years, electrocardiography has played a central role as a relatively specific marker for coronary and hypertensive heart disease.(More)