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Glucose homeostasis depends on insulin responsiveness in target tissues, most importantly, muscle and liver. The critical initial steps in insulin action include phosphorylation of scaffolding proteins and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. These early events lead to activation of the serine-threonine protein kinase Akt, also known as protein(More)
Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B) is a major protein-tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated in the regulation of insulin action, as well as in other signal transduction pathways. To investigate the role of PTP-1B in vivo, we generated homozygotic PTP-1B-null mice by targeted gene disruption. PTP-1B-deficient mice have remarkably low adiposity(More)
The earliest defect in developing type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance, characterized by decreased glucose transport and metabolism in muscle and adipocytes. The glucose transporter GLUT4 mediates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes and muscle by rapidly moving from intracellular storage sites to the plasma membrane. In insulin-resistant states(More)
Serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-1 might inhibit insulin signaling, but the relevant phosphorylation sites are difficult to identify in cultured cells and to validate in isolated tissues. Recently, we discovered that recombinant NH2-terminal Jun kinase phosphorylates IRS-1 at Ser307, which inhibits insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of(More)
Peripheral insulin resistance and impaired insulin action are the primary characteristics of type 2 diabetes. The first observable defect in this major disorder occurs in muscle, where glucose disposal in response to insulin is impaired. We have developed a transgenic mouse with a dominant-negative insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (KR-IGF-IR)(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of two-phase dynamic CT performed with mechanical IV injection of a bolus of contrast medium after oral intake of water in the preoperative staging of gastric cancers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS We performed incremental dynamic CT in 52 patients with pathologically proved gastric cancers. Dynamic(More)
Hypoxia enhances the proliferation and migration of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, this study primarily investigated whether or not ROS generation could regulate microRNA-210 (miR-210) expression, and increase proliferation/migration of ASCs. In addition, we tried to identify the signaling(More)
Insulin resistance is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and may involve fat-induced activation of a serine kinase cascade involving IKK-beta. To test this hypothesis, we first examined insulin action and signaling in awake rats during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps after a lipid infusion with or without pretreatment with salicylate,(More)
Srg3 (SWI3-related gene product) is a mouse homolog of yeast SWI3, Drosophila melanogaster MOIRA (also named MOR/BAP155), and human BAF155 and is known as a core subunit of SWI/SNF complex. This complex is involved in the chromatin remodeling required for the regulation of transcriptional processes associated with development, cellular differentiation, and(More)
Our recent study showed that peripheral inflammation induced an increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA which was mediated by nerve growth factor (NGF) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). In the present study, we evaluated the change of BDNF immunoreactivity in the DRG and spinal cord following peripheral inflammation by means(More)