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Utilizing human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in cell-based therapy and drug discovery requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up conventional adherent cultures presents challenges of maintaining a uniform high quality at low cost. In this regard, suspension cultures are a viable alternative, because they are scalable and do not require(More)
L-Malic acid is the predominate acid in pure apple juice and no D-malic acid should be present. Synthetic malic acid contains 50% D-malic acid, is inexpensive, and can be used to create nonauthentic apple juice. L-Malic/total malic ratios of 0.9 or less are indicative of a nonauthentic sample. Fourteen laboratories participated in a collaborative study to(More)
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