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Foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella remain a pressing public health concern. We recently detected a large outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 14b affecting more than 30 patients in our hospital. This outbreak was linked to community, national and European-wide cases. Hospital patients with Salmonella are at high risk, and require a(More)
BACKGROUND School closure is a potential intervention during an influenza pandemic and has been investigated in many modelling studies. OBJECTIVES To systematically review the effects of school closure on influenza outbreaks as predicted by simulation studies. METHODS We searched Medline and Embase for relevant modelling studies published by the end of(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the effects of school closures on pandemic and seasonal influenza outbreaks. DESIGN Systematic review. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE and EMBASE, reference lists of identified articles, hand searches of key journals and additional papers from the authors' collections. STUDY SELECTION Studies were included if they reported on a seasonal or(More)
A multi-country Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b outbreak associated with eggs from a German producer: 'near real-time' application of whole genome sequencing and food chain investigations, United Kingdom, May to September 2014 T Inns (thomas.inns@phe.gov.uk) on behalf of the Outbreak Control Team. A multi-country Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b(More)
methods alone (a group with a different prognosis). Additionally, study criteria used to identify moderate to severe disease may be difficult to generalise. Subjective criteria such as " poor general condition " are difficult to assess and standardise in patients with malaria, even for specialist centres. Busy casualty departments in general hospitals will(More)
Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) outbreaks are uncommon in Europe. In June 2014, two EIEC outbreaks occurred in Nottingham, UK, within 2 days; outbreak A was linked to a takeaway restaurant and outbreak B to a wedding party. We conducted 2 analytical studies: a case-control study for outbreak A and a cohort study for outbreak B. We tested(More)
as care has been taken to make the data from both sources comparable. To determine the reasons for this marked difference in outcome more extensive investigation is required. of the Regional Maternity Survey Office, Newcastle upon Tyne for their help in compiling the Northern region data and Vicki Ashton of Teesside University for statistical advice.(More)
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