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Microglia have neuroprotective capacities, yet chronic activation can promote neurotoxic inflammation. Neuronal fractalkine (FKN), acting on CX(3)CR1, has been shown to suppress excessive microglia activation. We found that disruption in FKN/CX(3)CR1 signaling in young adult rodents decreased survival and proliferation of neural progenitor cells through(More)
Chemokines interact with specific G-protein-coupled receptors to activate and direct recruitment of immune cells. Some chemokines are up-regulated in pathological conditions of the central nervous system, and recently several chemokine receptors, including CCR5, were identified in the brain. However, little is known about the regulation of expression of(More)
Fractalkine is an endothelial cell-derived CX 3 C chemokine that is chemotactic mainly to mononuclear cells. Fractalkine was induced in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) by interleu-kin-1␤ (IL-1␤), tumor necrosis factor ␣ (TNF-␣), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) transcriptionally and translationally. This induction correlated with increased NF-␬B DNA binding(More)
Following peripheral nerve transection, CX3CR1 and TGF-beta1 are increased in a time-dependent manner within the injured facial motor nucleus. To explore the relationship between TGF-beta1 and CX3CR1 in the CNS, the effects of TGF-beta1 on CX3CR1 mRNA, protein and fractalkine-dependent stimulation of signal transduction cascades in primary cultures of rat(More)
Chemokines are a family of structurally related cytokines that activate and recruit leukocytes into areas of inflammation. The "CC" chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 may regulate the microglia/monocyte response to acute brain injury. Recent studies have documented increased expression of MCP-1 in diverse acute and chronic experimental(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The poor prognosis and minimally successful treatments of these tumors indicates a need to identify new therapeutic targets. Therapy resistance of GBMs is attributed to heterogeneity of the glioblastoma due to genetic alterations and functional subpopulations. Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and(More)
Facial nerve axotomy (FNA) is a well-established experimental model of motoneuron regeneration. After peripheral nerve axotomy, a sequence of events including glial activation and axonal regrowth leads to functional recovery of the afflicted pool of motoneurons. Using microarray analysis we identified an increase in the expression of 60 genes (at a false(More)
Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and fatal brain cancers due to the highly invasive nature of glioma cells. Microglia infiltrate most glioma tumors and, therefore, make up an important component of the glioma microenvironment. In the tumor environment, microglia release factors that lead to the degradation of the extracellular matrix and stimulate(More)
Fractalkine is distinguished structurally from other chemokines in that it contains a mucin-like stalk that tethers a CX3C chemokine module to a transmembrane-spanning region; its expression in cultured endothelial cells has been shown to be up-regulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). The purpose of this study was to(More)