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Elementary flux modes (direct reaction routes) are minimal sets of enzymes that can operate at steady state, with all irreversible reactions used in the appropriate direction. They can be interpreted as component pathways of a (bio)chemical reaction network. Here, two different definitions of elementary modes are given and their equivalence is proved.(More)
The effects of self-administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on behavior and neurochemistry have not been previously studied in laboratory primates. We investigated the capacity of MDMA and its enantiomers to maintain contingent responding over an extended duration, whether any decrements in the reinforcing effects of these compounds would be(More)
A specific role for the dopamine D3 receptor in behavior has yet to be elucidated. We now report that dopamine D2/D3 agonists elicit dose-dependent yawning behavior in rats, resulting in an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. A series of experiments was directed toward the hypothesis that the induction of yawning is a D3 receptor-mediated effect, whereas(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine (METH) are amphetamine analogues with similar persistent neurochemical effects in the mouse which some have described as neurotoxicity. We attempted to identify dose regimens of MDMA and METH with similar effects on behavioral and physiological variables in the mouse, then quantified the effects(More)
The binding parameters of radiolabeled DAMGO (mu), DPDPE and pCl-DPDPE (delta) and 5 alpha, 7 alpha, 8 beta-N-methyl-N-[7-(1- pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro(4,5)dec-8-yl]benzeneacetamide (also known as U69593, kappa) and the affinity and selectivity profiles of various opioid agonists and antagonists at the three opioid receptor types were determined in membranes(More)
Evaluation of the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs is a useful procedure for identification of receptor mediation of in vivo drug effects. This assay can be enhanced when the stimulus effects of different doses of agonist are evaluated. In the present study, rats were trained to discriminate small or large doses of nicotine from saline, and(More)
The behavioral effects of MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydroxy-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclohepten-5,10-imin e], a proposed noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, were compared to those of phencyclidine (PCP). In pigeons, MK-801 produced PCP-like catalepsy (i.e., loss of righting without eye closure and without muscle relaxation) and PCP-like(More)
RATIONALE Few studies have directly compared the effects of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") and its enantiomers across measures. OBJECTIVES To investigate the capacity of MDMA and its stereoisomers to produce aggregate toxicity in mice, the influence of 5-HT(2) receptors, 5-HT transporters, and ambient temperature on this effect, and to(More)
The present study examined the effect of drug and reinforcement history on quinpirole-maintained responding in rats. Quinpirole (0.01, 0.032, or 0.1 mg/kg per injection) was assessed as a reinforcer in experimentally naive rats, as well as in rats trained to self-administer cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, or food under a fixed ratio 1 schedule of(More)
1-Benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) are two designer drugs that are often sold in combination tablets via the internet. The discriminative stimulus properties and reinforcing effects of these compounds have not previously been assessed in laboratory primates. In this regard, the reinforcing effects of BZP and TFMPP(More)