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BACKGROUND Macrostructural abnormalities in cerebral white matter in patients with myelomeningocele are well known, but microstructural abnormalities are not as well studied. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate cerebral white matter in adolescents with myelomeningocele using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and to investigate the effects of(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine neuropsychological profiles for patients with spina bifida. The sample consisted of 37 subjects with spina bifida between the ages of 14 and 23. Each of the subjects was seen individually and administered the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery as well as the appropriate Wechsler Intelligence Scale.(More)
The development of motor and sensory proficiency and the integration of soft signs were analyzed for 38 children with average achievement and 29 children achieving below grade level. Motor coordination, speed, and inhibition, as well as the development of sensory function, were evaluated at the time of entrance to kindergarten and again during the first(More)
This study examined the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) with 130 children and adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) who were between the ages of 8 and 13 years of age. Results of factor analysis showed errors scores from the BVRT loaded on a visual processing/memory factor. The measure appears to be sensitive to developmental patterns which was(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Infant diets may have significant impact on brain development in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate brain gray matter structure and function in 8-year-old children who were predominantly breastfed or fed cow's milk formula as infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-two healthy children (breastfed: n = 22, 10 boys and 12(More)
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate functional activity in the brain of adolescents with spina bifida when performing selective attention and response inhibition tasks. We then compared the results to that of age-matched controls. Our results showed that adolescents with spina bifida had decreased frontal and superior parietal(More)
Children underwent motor and sensory testing during each of 3 consecutive years beginning at kindergarten entrance. Children were assigned to either a motor-normal or motor-delayed group based on results from testing during the 1st year of the study. Motor-normal subjects (n = 17) had standard scores on a global motor-sensory test that fell within one(More)
Despite much progress in the diagnosis and management of children with attentional problems, hyperactivity, and learning difficulties, current diagnostic techniques remain inadequate to readily distinguish a primary attentional disorder from a more complex secondary problem. Developmental and behavioral questionnaires to supplement office evaluation of(More)
BACKGROUND The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breastfeeding, which is well known to promote cognitive and behavioral development. The evidence for why this occurs is not well understood. METHODS Fifty-six 7.5- to 8.5-y-old healthy children were breastfed (BF; n = 22, 10 males) or formula-fed (FF; n = 34, 16 males) as infants. All children were(More)
Motor and tactile integration skills were sequentially assessed with academically average (N = 28) and academically disabled children (N = 17) over a 3-year period. The initial results demonstrated considerable differences between the groups. Analysis of variance and visual inspection of trends in the longitudinal data for the academically disabled group(More)