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The stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), which are identical to the c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs), are activated in response to a variety of cellular stresses, including DNA damage, heat shock or tumour-necrosis factor-alpha. SAPK, a subfamily of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, is a major protein kinase that phosphorylates c-Jun and(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been widely accepted as a tumor marker useful in the diagnosis and management of colorectal carcinoma. When CEA levels are positive in patients with gastric carcinoma, they could be useful prognostic indicators. The value of CEA as a tumor marker for gastric carcinoma, however, remains a matter of(More)
Imposex was measured in the rock shell, Thais clavigera, from the coast of the Korean peninsula. Frequency of imposex was 0% at two reference sites, but at 47 out of 61 sites, frequency of imposex was recorded as 100%. The degree of imposex was relatively high at the sites near a harbor and a shipyard. Tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) concentrations(More)
Nitric oxide is a signaling molecule that has a broad range of physiological functions, including neurotransmission, macrophage activation, and vasodilation. The mechanism by which nitric oxide regulates signal transduction mediating diverse biological activities is not fully understood, however. Here, we demonstrate that nitric oxide induced the(More)
Several studies have shown physiological functions of interleukin (IL)-32, a novel cytokine. However, the role of IL-32 in cancer development has not been reported. In this study, we showed that IL-32γ inhibited tumor growth in IL-32γ-overexpressing transgenic mice inoculated with melanoma as well as colon tumor growth in xenograft nude mice inoculated with(More)
The present study was planned to investigate the serum disposition kinetics and the pattern of ceftriaxone elimination in milk and urine of lactating ewes (n = 6) following i.v. and i.m. administration. A crossover study was carried out in two phases separated by 15 days. Ceftriaxone was administered at a dosage of 10 mg/kg b.w. in all animals. Serum, milk(More)
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate whether radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an alternative to surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the context of current guidelines. METHODS This retrospective study included patients with normal portal pressure and serum bilirubin level who initially underwent liver resection or RFA for a(More)
Although previous studies have proposed plausible mechanisms of the activation of transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in inflammatory signals, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), its activating kinase still remains to be unclear. In the present study, we have provided evidences that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α1 has a pivotal(More)
The rhizome of Angelica gigas Nakai, Angelica sinensis Diels and Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (Umbelliferae) were chopped and extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent free solid injector (SFSI) methods to obtain the volatile compounds that were then characterized and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). SFSI extraction yielded a(More)