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Keywords: Mars surface Mars climate Mars polar geology Image processing a b s t r a c t The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) acquired 8 terapixels of data in 9137 images of Mars between October 2006 and December 2008, covering $0.55% of the surface. Images are typically 5–6 km wide with 3-color(More)
The distribution pattern of pressure over the bovine claw was investigated to test the hypothesis that the ground reaction force is unevenly distributed and makes some regions of the claw more prone to overloading and injury than others. In eight recently trimmed Holstein Friesian cows, the distribution of vertical pressure was measured during square(More)
[1] Two depositional fan complexes have been identified on the floor of southwest Melas Chasma. The western fan complex is located near the center of an enclosed basin in southwest Melas Chasma and is composed of multiple lobes with dendritic finger-like terminations. These fans are very flat and have a morphology unlike any other fan that has been(More)
This study investigates three bedrock exposures at Erebus crater, an , 300 m diameter crater approximately 4 km south of Endurance crater on Mars. These outcrops, called Olympia, Payson, and Yavapai, provide additional evidence in support of the dune–interdune model proposed for the formation of the deposits at the Opportunity landing site in Meridiani(More)
The problem of how to objectively assess the overall welfare status of animals under farming conditions has contributed to an ongoing debate that has hampered actual decision making on animal welfare. For this reason we constructed a model based on the assumed hierarchical organization of the animals' needs for overall welfare assessment in the case of(More)
This paper examines the validity of a model that is embedded in a computer-based decision support system to assess the welfare status of pregnant sows in housing and management systems. The so-called SOWEL (SOw WELfare) model was constructed using a formalized procedure to identify and weight welfare-relevant attributes of housing systems in relation to the(More)
The pressure distribution under the bovine claw while walking was measured to test the hypotheses that the vertical ground reaction force is unevenly distributed and makes some (regions of the) claws more prone to injuries due to overloading than others. Each limb of nine recently trimmed Holstein Friesian cows was measured five times while walking over a(More)
Improved housing for laying hens may start from the translation of their behavioral needs into welfare-based design parameters for laying hen houses. The objective of our research was to gain insights into the facility usage and behavioral needs of the hen over 24 h when there are no obvious restraints. Twenty ISA Brown commercial laying hens (Gallus(More)
In Chile, cow carcasses present the highest bruise prevalence compared with other cattle categories; however, the causes of the bruises are frequently unknown. In this study, 52 cull cows were transported to the slaughterhouse in three batches under identical transport conditions. A combination of direct observation and video analyses was used to determine(More)