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Production of interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor from stimulated human monocytes is inhibited by a new series of pyridinyl-imidazole compounds. Using radiolabelled and radio-photoaffinity-labelled chemical probes, the target of these compounds was identified as a pair of closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase homologues, termed CSBPs.(More)
Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient(More)
A class of pyridinyl imidazoles inhibit the MAP kinase homologue, termed here reactivating kinase (RK) [Lee et al. (1994) Nature 372, 739-746]. We now show that one of these compounds (SB 203580) inhibits RK in vitro (IC50 = 0.6 microM), suppresses the activation of MAPKAP kinase-2 and prevents the phosphorylation of heat shock protein (HSP) 27 in response(More)
TRAIL is a tumor necrosis factor-related ligand that induces apoptosis upon binding to its death domain-containing receptors, DR4 and DR5. Two additional TRAIL receptors, TRID/DcR1 and DcR2, lack functional death domains and function as decoy receptors for TRAIL. We have identified a fifth TRAIL receptor, namely osteoprotegerin (OPG), a secreted tumor(More)
BACKGROUND Episodic inflammation in the CNS during the early stages of MS results in progressive disability years later, presumably due to myelin and axonal injury. MRI demonstrates ongoing disease activity during the early disease stage, even in some patients who are stable clinically. The optimal MRI measure for the destructive pathologic process is(More)
Dystroglycan is a central component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), a protein assembly that plays a critical role in a variety of muscular dystrophies. In order to better understand the function of dystroglycan in development and disease, we have generated a null allele of dystroglycan (Dag1neo2) in mice. Heterozygous Dag1neo2 mice are viable(More)
Neurogenin3 (ngn3), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, functions as a pro-endocrine factor in the developing pancreas: by itself, it is sufficient to force undifferentiated pancreatic epithelial cells to become islet cells. Because ngn3 expression determines which precursor cells will differentiate into islet cells, the signals that(More)
Opioid receptors regulate neuronal activity by both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. We recently reported that the cloned delta-opioid receptor (DOR1) is primarily targeted to axons, suggesting a presynaptic role. In the present study we have studied the distribution and targeting of another opioid receptor, the mu-opioid receptor (MOR1), by raising(More)
Mutations in the mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene, which encodes a mitochondrial GTPase mitofusin protein, have recently been reported to cause both Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2A (CMT2A) and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy VI (HMSN VI). It is well known that HMSN VI is an axonal CMT neuropathy with optic atrophy. However, the differences between CMT2A and HMSN VI(More)
Streptococcus mutans is a bacterium that has evolved to be dependent upon a biofilm "lifestyle" for survival and persistence in its natural ecosystem, dental plaque. We initiated this study to identify the genes involved in the development of genetic competence in S. mutans and to assay the natural genetic transformability of biofilm-grown cells. Using(More)