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The effect of flow-by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in comparison with continuous-flow (CF) CPAP on inspiratory muscle work of breathing (WI) in intubated patients is not known. We hypothesized that WI during flow-by CPAP would be comparable with that during CF CPAP. In nine intubated male patients recovering from acute respiratory failure(More)
BACKGROUND The contribution and role of emphysema and small airways disease in causing expiratory airflow limitation in COPD is controversial. METHODS We obtained high-resolution thin-section 2-mm CT scans of the lung for emphysema grading and lung function in 116 consecutively seen COPD outpatients with fixed expiratory airflow limitation. In this group,(More)
Previous studies on autopsy specimens or surgically resected lobes or lungs have reached varying conclusions regarding the importance of small airways disease and emphysema in causing fixed expiratory airflow limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We obtained high resolution CT scans of the lung and lung function in 56(More)
The effects of acute and chronic administrations of aminophylline (AM) on diaphragm contractility and fatigue resistance were examined in 42 rats. In acute experiments (n = 22), the animals received an intravenous bolus of either AM (14 mg/kg; n = 11) or saline (n = 11). Serum AM level was determined 30 min after the bolus (17.8 +/- 0.8 mg/L, SD). In(More)
Two procedures were used to estimate the relative contribution of neurotransmission failure (NF) to fatigue of the rat diaphragm at different rates of phrenic nerve stimulation. In one, direct muscle stimulation was intermittently superimposed on neural stimulation of the diaphragm, and the relative contribution of NF was estimated by the difference in(More)
Tumor necrosis factor is a cytokine produced by activated macrophages that causes hemorrhagic necrosis in various tumours. In preliminary clinical trials, patients have developed various degrees of respiratory insufficiency following administration of rTNF. Twenty-seven patients were studied prospectively to evaluate the effect of administration of rTNF on(More)
We compared the efficacy of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) vs negative pressure ventilation (NPV) in providing ventilatory muscle rest for five normal subjects and six patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All participants underwent measurement of transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi), pressure time integral of the diaphragm (PTI),(More)
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