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Amyloid plaques in brain tissue are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Primary components of these plaques are 40- and 42-residue peptides, denoted A beta(1-40) and A beta(1-42), that are derived by proteolysis of cellular amyloid precursor protein. Synthetic A beta(1-40) and A beta(1-42) form amyloid fibrils in vitro that share many features with the(More)
We describe the morphology and mechanical stability of the apical surface of MDCK monolayers by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Living cells could be imaged in physiological solution for several hours without noticeable deterioration. Cell boundaries appear as ridges that clearly demarcate neighboring cells. In some cases the nucleus of individual cells(More)
An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to study the structure of isolated hepatic gap junctions in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The thickness of these gap junctions appears to be 14.4 nanometers, close to the dimensions reported by electron microscopy (EM). When an increasing force is applied to the microscope tip, the top membrane of the gap(More)
The extracellular surface of the gap junction cell-to-cell channels was imaged in phosphate-buffered saline with an atomic force microscope. The fully hydrated isolated gap junction membranes adsorbed to mica were irregular sheets approximately 1-2 microns across and 13.2 (+/- 1.3) nm thick. The top bilayer of the gap junction was dissected by increasing(More)
The spatial and temporal changes of the mechanical properties of living cells reflect complex underlying physiological processes. Following these changes should provide valuable insight into the biological importance of cellular mechanics and their regulation. The tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) can be used to indent soft samples, and the force(More)
A long-range repulsive force near isolated neurofilaments was detected by exclusion of large molecules and by direct force measurements with atomic force microscopy. Adsorption of isolated native neurofilaments to a solid substrate in a high-salt solution (170 mM NaCl), in the presence of coisolating contaminants, shows that the contaminants are excluded(More)
Neurofilaments and microtubules are important components of the neuronal cytoskeleton. In axons or dendrites, these filaments are aligned in parallel arrays, and separated from one another by nonrandom distances. This distinctive organization has been attributed to cross bridges formed by NF side arms or microtubule-associated proteins. We recently proposed(More)
We present coarse-grained simulations of fusion between two liposomes from which a detailed picture of lipid movements emerges. In these simulations the bilayers dilate at the contact edge, and the resulting increase in the area per lipid produces a tilting of the individual molecules as predicted. Fusion is initiated when some of these tilted lipids splay(More)