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Several members of the chemokine receptor family are used together with CD4 for HIV-1 entry into target cells. T cell line-tropic (T-tropic) HIV-1 viruses use the chemokine receptor CXCR4 as a co-receptor, whereas macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) primary viruses use CCR5 (refs 2-6). Individuals with defective CCR5 alleles exhibit resistance to HIV-1 infection,(More)
Aim The Tibetan Plateau accounts for about a quarter of the total land area of China and has a variety of ecosystems ranging from alpine tundra to evergreen tropics. Its soils are dominated by permafrost and are rich in organic carbon. Its climate is unique due to the influence of the Asian monsoon and its complex topography. To date, the carbon dynamics of(More)
Human herpesviruses are large and structurally complex viruses that cause a variety of diseases. The three-dimensional structure of the herpesvirus capsid has been determined at 8.5 angstrom resolution by electron cryomicroscopy. More than 30 putative alpha helices were identified in the four proteins that make up the 0.2 billion-dalton shell. Some of these(More)
Recent neuroimaging and postmortem studies have reported abnormalities in white matter of schizophrenic brains, suggesting the involvement of oligodendrocytes in the etiopathology of schizophrenia. This view is being supported by gene microarray studies showing the downregulation of genes related to oligodendrocyte function and myelination in schizophrenic(More)
UNLABELLED Effects of morphine on acquisition and retrieval of memory have been proven in the avoidance paradigms. In present study, we used a two-trial recognition Y-maze to test the effects of acute morphine and morphine withdrawal on spatial recognition memory. The Y-maze is based on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novel environments and(More)
Serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKAII), hepatoma-specific band of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGTII), and a-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were determined in 120 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 90 patients with cirrhosis. The mean serum concentration of PIVKAII in HCC patients was higher than that in cirrhotic(More)
Cellular responses to DNA damage induced by intrinsic and extrinsic genotoxic stresses are highly regulated by complex signaling pathways, such as activation of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase-like protein kinase family and their downstream genes. Disruption of these signaling pathways leads to genome instability and cell death, and thus may provide potential(More)
BACKGROUND Determining the somatic mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-pathway networks is the key to effective treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).The somatic mutation frequencies and their association with gender, smoking history and histology was analysed and reported in this study. (More)
Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed on recorded neuronal action potentials from neural ensembles in rat's motor cortex when the rat was involved in a closed-loop real-time brain machine interface (BCI). The implanted rat was placed in a conditioning chamber, but freely moving, to decide which one of the two paddles should be activated to shift(More)
Expression of c-fos in the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the inferior colliculus (IC) in response to bicuculline-induced corticofugal activation was examined in rats at different time points after bilateral cochlear ablation (4 h-30 days). Corticofugal activation was crucial in eliciting Fos expression in the MGB after cochlear ablation. The pars ovoidea(More)