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An association between autistic spectrum disorder and imitative impairment might result from dysfunction in mirror neurons (MNs) that serve to relate observed actions to motor codings. To explore this hypothesis, we employed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol previously used to identify the neural substrate of imitation, and human MN(More)
Imitative deficits have been associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for many years, most recently through more robust methodologies. A fresh, systematic review of the significance, characteristics, and underlying mechanism of the association is therefore warranted. From 121 candidates, we focused on 21 well-controlled studies involving 281 cases(More)
Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) may have poor audio-visual integration, possibly reflecting dysfunctional 'mirror neuron' systems which have been hypothesised to be at the core of the condition. In the present study, a computer program, utilizing speech synthesizer software and a 'virtual' head (Baldi), delivered speech stimuli for(More)
Although much is now known about eye movement detection, little is known about the higher cognitive processes involved in joint attention. We developed video stimuli which when watched, engender an experience of joint attention in the observer. This allowed us to compare an experience of joint attention to nonjoint attention within an fMRI scanning(More)
This study investigated skill-based differences in anticipation and visual search strategy within open-play situations in soccer. Experienced (n = 15) and inexperienced (n = 15) subjects were required to anticipate pass destination from filmed soccer sequences viewed on a large 3-m x 3-m video projection screen. MANCOVA showed that experienced soccer(More)
A number of imaging and neuropathological studies have reported structural abnormalities in white matter areas such as the corpus callosum in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Differences in both global brain volume and the size of specific neural structures have been reported. In order to expand these previously reported findings and to describe more(More)
Recent behavioural research has investigated whether viewing someone perform an action results in activation of that action by the observer. Postulated empirical support for this 'ideo-motor (IM) conjecture' typically rests upon two types of experimental paradigm (reaction time and movement tracking tasks). These paradigms purport to show movement(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and frequency of autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome (AS; according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition [DSM-IV] criteria) in children exposed to anticonvulsant medication in utero. During a 20-year study period, 626 children were born in Aberdeen to mothers(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a widely studied model of the synaptic basis of information storage in the mammalian brain. The induction of LTP is triggered by the postsynaptic entry of calcium through the channel associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, whereas its maintenance is mediated, at least in part, by presynaptic mechanisms. To(More)
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with abnormal neuroanatomy in many imaging and neuropathological studies. Both global brain volume differences and differences in the size of specific neural structures have been reported. Here, we report a voxel-based morphometric whole brain analysis, using a group specific template, on 16 individuals(More)