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Perpendicularly magnetized materials have attracted significant interest owing to their high anisotropy, which gives rise to extremely narrow, nanosized domain walls. As a result, the recently studied current-induced domain wall motion (CIDWM) in these materials promises to enable a new class of data, memory and logic devices. Here we propose the spin Hall(More)
The movement of magnetic domain walls can be used to build a device known as a shift register, which has applications in memory and logic circuits. However, the application of magnetic domain wall shift registers has been hindered by geometrical restrictions, by randomness in domain wall displacement and by the need for high current densities or rotating(More)
Magnetic domain-walls (DWs) with a preferred chirality exhibit very efficient current-driven motion. Since structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) is required for their stability, the observation of chiral domain walls in highly symmetric Pt/Co/Pt is intriguing. Here, we tune the layer asymmetry in this system and observe, by current-assisted DW depinning(More)
Industrial synthesis of l-carnitine is currently performed by whole-cell biotransformation of industrial waste products, mostly d-carnitine and cronobetaine, through specific bacterial species. No comparable system has been established using eukaryotic microorganisms, even though there is a significant and growing international demand for either the pure(More)
Levans are fructose polymers synthesized by a broad range of micro-organisms and a limited number of plant species as non-structural storage carbohydrates. In microbes, these polymers contribute to the formation of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix and play a role in microbial biofilm formation. Levans belong to a larger group of commercially(More)
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