Learn More
Mutations in the BRCA1 (ref. 1) tumour suppressor gene are found in almost all of the families with inherited breast and ovarian cancers and about half of the families with only breast cancer. Although the biochemical function of BRCA1 is not well understood, it is important for DNA damage repair and cell-cycle checkpoint. BRCA1 exists in nuclear foci but(More)
Viral clearance during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been thought to reflect the destruction of infected hepatocytes by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. However, in this study, HBV DNA was shown to largely disappear from the liver and the blood of acutely infected chimpanzees long before the peak of T cell infiltration and most of the liver disease. These(More)
The Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) serine/threonine kinase is well known as an important mediator of many cell survival signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate for the first time a major role of Akt/PKB in the cell invasion properties of the highly metastatic cell line HT1080. Using confocal microscopic analyses of live samples, we found Akt/PKB to be(More)
The aged appearance of skin following repeated exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation stems largely from damage to cutaneous connective tissue, which is composed primarily of type I and type III collagens. We report here that a single exposure to UV irradiation causes significant loss of procollagen synthesis in human skin. Expression of type I and(More)
Checkpoints maintain the order and fidelity of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and defects in checkpoints contribute to genetic instability and cancer. Much of our current understanding of checkpoints comes from genetic studies conducted in yeast. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp), SpRad3 is an essential component of both the DNA damage and DNA(More)
Damage to human skin due to ultraviolet light from the sun (photoaging) and damage occurring as a consequence of the passage of time (chronologic or natural aging) are considered to be distinct entities. Photoaging is caused in part by damage to skin connective tissue by increased elaboration of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases, and by reduced(More)
Human lung adenocarcinoma, the most prevalent form of lung cancer, is characterized by many molecular abnormalities. K-ras mutations are associated with the initiation of lung adenocarcinomas, but K-ras-independent mechanisms may also initiate lung tumors. Here, we find that the runt-related transcription factor Runx3 is essential for normal murine lung(More)
Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1) is a central mediator of the cell signaling between phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and various intracellular serine/threonine kinases including Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), p70 S6 kinases, and protein kinase C. Recent studies with cell transfection experiments have implied that PDK-1 may be involved in various(More)
Hesperidin, a known flavonoid constituent of citrus, reduces the proliferation of many cancer cells. The apoptotic effects of hesperidin on human colon cancer cells, SNU-C4, were determined at concentrations of 1-100 microM. At 100 microM, hesperidin reduced cell viability to 65.00+/-0.05% of control values in a(More)
hCds1 (Chk2) is an evolutionarily conserved kinase that functions in DNA damage response and cell cycle checkpoint. The Cds1 family of kinases are activated by a family of large phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like kinases. In humans, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinases activate hCds1 by phosphorylating(More)