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Müller glial cells span the entire thickness of the tissue, and ensheath all retinal neurons, in vertebrate retinae of all species. This morphological relationship is reflected by a multitude of functional interactions between neurons and Müller cells, including a 'metabolic symbiosis' and the processing of visual information. Müller cells are also(More)
Astrocytes are considered a reticulate network of cells, through which calcium signals can spread easily. In Bergmann glia, astrocytic cells of the cerebellum, we identified subcellular compartments termed 'glial microdomains'. These elements have a complex surface consisting of thin membrane sheets, contain few mitochondria and wrap around synapses. To(More)
Large amounts of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) released from cellular sources under pathological conditions such as ischemia may activate purinoceptors of the P2X and P2Y types. In the present study, the expression of the P2X7 receptor-subtype in the brain cortex of spontaneously hypertensive rats was investigated using a permanent focal cerebral ischemia(More)
Perineuronal nets (PNs) are known as chondroitin sulphate-rich, lattice-like coatings of the extracellular matrix. In the cortex of mammalian species investigated so far, they were mainly found around GABAergic neurons, but to a lesser degree also around pyramidal cells. Previous investigations in the rat revealed similar distribution patterns of(More)
Bergmann glial cells are closely associated with neurons: during development they provide guiding structures for migrating granule cells and in the adult cerebellum they display intimate interactions with Purkinje cells. In this study, we have addressed the question of whether such changes in neuronal-glial interactions during development are accompanied by(More)
Extracellular ATP facilitates the release of dopamine via P2 receptor activation in parts of the mesolimbic system. To characterize P2X/Y receptor subtypes in the developing dopaminergic system, their expression in organotypic slice co-cultures including the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) complex and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was studied(More)
Extracellular purines act as neuromodulators on transmitter release and may exert toxic effects at higher concentrations. In microdialysis studies, endogenous ATP facilitated the extracellular concentration of glutamate in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats. Additionally, P2 receptors are involved in astrogliosis in vivo after a stab wound injury in the(More)
The abnormal retinal neurotransmission observed in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and in some genotypes of mice lacking dystrophin has been attributed to altered expression of short products of the dystrophin gene. We have investigated the potential role of Dp71, the most abundant C-terminal dystrophin gene product, in retinal electrophysiology.(More)
Dopamine plays important functional roles in the vertebrate retina. Here we show that functional D2 dopamine receptors are present on mammalian retinal Müller (glial) cells. Using an antiserum directed to two oligopeptides predicted from rat D2 receptor DNA, patchy label was demonstrated immunocytochemically on virtually all Müller cells enzymatically(More)
It is well established that Bergmann glial cells closely interact with neuronal elements in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. We reconstructed dye-labeled Bergmann glial cells from electron microscopic serial sections and identified their contact sites with neurons as "glial microdomains" (Grosche et al. [1999] Nature Neurosci. 2:139-143). In the(More)