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Müller glial cells span the entire thickness of the tissue, and ensheath all retinal neurons, in vertebrate retinae of all species. This morphological relationship is reflected by a multitude of functional interactions between neurons and Müller cells, including a 'metabolic symbiosis' and the processing of visual information. Müller cells are also(More)
Astrocytes are considered a reticulate network of cells, through which calcium signals can spread easily. In Bergmann glia, astrocytic cells of the cerebellum, we identified subcellular compartments termed 'glial microdomains'. These elements have a complex surface consisting of thin membrane sheets, contain few mitochondria and wrap around synapses. To(More)
Perineuronal nets (PNs) are known as chondroitin sulphate-rich, lattice-like coatings of the extracellular matrix. In the cortex of mammalian species investigated so far, they were mainly found around GABAergic neurons, but to a lesser degree also around pyramidal cells. Previous investigations in the rat revealed similar distribution patterns of(More)
Astrocytes express a variety of neurotransmitter receptors which render them capable of responding to extracellular stimuli, like ATP. Release of ATP, e.g. after brain injury, may initiate reactive gliosis via stimulation of purinergic P2X and P2Y receptors. In the present study, the expression and cellular localization of P2X receptor subtypes on(More)
Bergmann glial cells are closely associated with neurons: during development they provide guiding structures for migrating granule cells and in the adult cerebellum they display intimate interactions with Purkinje cells. In this study, we have addressed the question of whether such changes in neuronal-glial interactions during development are accompanied by(More)
ATP has been shown to be an important extracellular signaling molecule. There are two subgroups of receptors for ATP (and other purines and pyrimidines): the ionotropic P2X and the G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Different subtypes of these receptors have been identified by molecular biology, but little is known about their functional properties in the(More)
Although biological cells are mostly transparent, they are phase objects that differ in shape and refractive index. Any image that is projected through layers of randomly oriented cells will normally be distorted by refraction, reflection, and scattering. Counterintuitively, the retina of the vertebrate eye is inverted with respect to its optical function(More)
It is well established that Bergmann glial cells closely interact with neuronal elements in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. We reconstructed dye-labeled Bergmann glial cells from electron microscopic serial sections and identified their contact sites with neurons as "glial microdomains" (Grosche et al. [1999] Nature Neurosci. 2:139-143). In the(More)
Neurotransmitter uptake into synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular neurotransmitter transporters. Although these transporters belong to different families, they all are thought to share a common overall topology with an even number of transmembrane domains. Using epitope-specific antibodies and mass spectrometry we show that the vesicular GABA(More)
Perineuronal nets (PNs) consisting of polyanionic chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) and other extracellular matrix components create an exceptional microenvironment around certain types of neurons. In rat neocortex, three types of PNs can be distinguished after staining with Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) by their different morphological(More)