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Müller glial cells span the entire thickness of the tissue, and ensheath all retinal neurons, in vertebrate retinae of all species. This morphological relationship is reflected by a multitude of functional interactions between neurons and Müller cells, including a 'metabolic symbiosis' and the processing of visual information. Müller cells are also(More)
Astrocytes are considered a reticulate network of cells, through which calcium signals can spread easily. In Bergmann glia, astrocytic cells of the cerebellum, we identified subcellular compartments termed 'glial microdomains'. These elements have a complex surface consisting of thin membrane sheets, contain few mitochondria and wrap around synapses. To(More)
Large amounts of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) released from cellular sources under pathological conditions such as ischemia may activate purinoceptors of the P2X and P2Y types. In the present study, the expression of the P2X7 receptor-subtype in the brain cortex of spontaneously hypertensive rats was investigated using a permanent focal cerebral ischemia(More)
Perineuronal nets (PNs) are known as chondroitin sulphate-rich, lattice-like coatings of the extracellular matrix. In the cortex of mammalian species investigated so far, they were mainly found around GABAergic neurons, but to a lesser degree also around pyramidal cells. Previous investigations in the rat revealed similar distribution patterns of(More)
Bergmann glial cells are closely associated with neurons: during development they provide guiding structures for migrating granule cells and in the adult cerebellum they display intimate interactions with Purkinje cells. In this study, we have addressed the question of whether such changes in neuronal-glial interactions during development are accompanied by(More)
ATP has been shown to be an important extracellular signaling molecule. There are two subgroups of receptors for ATP (and other purines and pyrimidines): the ionotropic P2X and the G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Different subtypes of these receptors have been identified by molecular biology, but little is known about their functional properties in the(More)
Perineuronal nets (PNs) consisting of polyanionic chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) and other extracellular matrix components create an exceptional microenvironment around certain types of neurons. In rat neocortex, three types of PNs can be distinguished after staining with Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) by their different morphological(More)
Neurotransmitter uptake into synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular neurotransmitter transporters. Although these transporters belong to different families, they all are thought to share a common overall topology with an even number of transmembrane domains. Using epitope-specific antibodies and mass spectrometry we show that the vesicular GABA(More)
Extracellular ATP facilitates the release of dopamine via P2 receptor activation in parts of the mesolimbic system. To characterize P2X/Y receptor subtypes in the developing dopaminergic system, their expression in organotypic slice co-cultures including the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) complex and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was studied(More)
Extracellular purines act as neuromodulators on transmitter release and may exert toxic effects at higher concentrations. In microdialysis studies, endogenous ATP facilitated the extracellular concentration of glutamate in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats. Additionally, P2 receptors are involved in astrogliosis in vivo after a stab wound injury in the(More)