J Grayson Osborne

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In a conditional discrimination, 6 college students arranged six Cyrillic letters into groups of three based upon which of two additional Cyrillic letters (contextual stimuli) was present. All subjects demonstrated symmetry and transitivity within each class of equivalent stimuli. In a second conditional discrimination, two more Cyrillic letters were(More)
In Experiment 1, four developmentally delayed adolescents were taught an A-B matching-to-sample task with nonidentical stimuli: given Sample A1, select Comparison B1; given A2, select B2. During nonreinforced test trials, appropriate matching occurred when B stimuli appeared as samples and A stimuli as comparisons, i.e., the sample and comparison functions(More)
Seventeen pigeons were exposed to a three-key discrete-trial procedure in which a peck on the lit center key produced food if, and only if, the left keylight was lit. The center key was illuminated by a peck on the lit right key. Of interest was whether subjects pecked the right key before or after the response-independent onset of the left keylight. Pecks(More)
Five experiments were conducted in which preschool children (29-73 months) matched pictures of common objects. Each trial consisted of a sample and two comparison pictures (all three together defined as a trial type) in which the sample was related to one comparison taxonomically and to the other thematically. The intent of each experiment was to replicate(More)
Pairs of pictures were classified by the authors and others as related by identity (A-A), basic taxonomy (A-B), superordinate taxonomy (A-C), or by theme (A-D). Two-choice matching-to-sample trial types were composed of these same picture pairs in which the sample was common to the two stimulus pairs in each configuration and, together with the sample, each(More)
A 25-year-old, deaf-blind, mentally retarded male was treated for chronic self-choking using water mist treatment and positive reinforcement. During pre-treatment baseline, self-chokes occurred at a rate of 2.09 per minute. During treatment sessions each self-choke was followed by water misting of the subject's face paired with a forceful "No!". Periods of(More)
Trafficking of radioactive material, particularly special nuclear material (SNM), has long been a worldwide concern. To interdict this material the US government has installed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) around the globe. Building materials surrounding an RPM can greatly effect the detector's background radiation levels due to Naturally Occurring(More)
Two middle-aged men with mental retardation, addicted to smoking cigarettes, operated spinners that determined the probability with which they could obtain cigarettes and other items. Absence of several maladaptive behaviors permitted the operation of the spinners hourly (i.e., DRO 60 min), 16 h per day, 7 days per week. The actual frequencies of obtaining(More)
Cyclical self-injurious behavior (SIB) in the form of self-slapping was treated in a 45-year-old, profoundly retarded woman who had a life-long history of SIB. Her SIB alternated between high (mean = 8.54 responses per min; SD = 6.77 and low (mean = 0.05 responses per min; SD = 0.20) frequencies every 8 weeks on average. Instances of self-slapping produced(More)
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