J Gerald Collee

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Predicted numbers vary widely but the most authoritative estimate is that about 6950 cases of BSE will occur in cattle in the UK during 1997-2001 if new infections via feed have ceased as expected and if 10% maternal transmission occurs in the last half-year of the maternal incubation period. This assumes no culling or premature slaughter. Agreed cull(More)
Up until February 2006, variant CJD (vCJD), the human disease associated with transmission of BSE from cattle, has been confirmed in 160 patients resident in the UK and 28 elsewhere, some of whom have never visited the UK. Cases have been reported in France (16 cases), Ireland (3), USA (2), Canada, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Portugal, Saudi Arabia and(More)
Bile acids are secreted in the bile in the form of conjugates and many species of intestinal bacteria can rapidly deconjugate them. Studies have shown that an unconjugated bile acid may have bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects, which are pH dependent. It is proposed that unconjugated bile acids may be involved in a homoeostatic mechanism, preventing(More)
More than 1000 strains of gram-negative anaerobic bacilli, including reference strains, clinical isolates, and members of the normal flora of the mouth, lower gastro-intestinal tract and vagina of healthy human subjects, were studied by conventional bacteriological methods and by gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of metabolic products in a series of(More)
A total of 154 patients admitted to an infectious diseases unit were included in a year's prospective survey of sporadic diarrhoeal disease. Stools from 19 of them yielded Clostridium difficile, generally on more than one occasion. Twelve of these patients were assessed as having a severe or moderately severe gastrointestinal illness: Cl difficile was the(More)
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), popularly known as "mad cow disease", was discovered in 1986 and has accounted for the deaths of over 165,000 cattle in the UK (by the end of January, 1997) with about 34,000 (mainly dairy) herds involved. The syndrome in the cow includes changes in posture and temperament, apprehension, and loss of coordination.(More)
Twenty eight strains of Clostridium difficile , isolated from an outbreak of antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhoea in an orthopaedic ward and from sporadic cases throughout Sweden, were sent to Edinburgh for immunochemical fingerprinting without information about their origin. EDTA extracts of the organisms were examined by crossed(More)
Characterisation systems based on the demonstration of soluble antigens and toxins are of much practical value but have clear taxonomic limitations. This is illustrated by reference to our work with some of the pathogenic clostridia. The definition and classification of the anaerobic cocci is a difficult and continuing challenge. Systems for the(More)