A better quantification of aerosol properties is required for improving the modelling of aerosol effects on weather and climate. This task is methodologically demanding due to the diversity of the microphysical properties of aerosols and the complex relation between their microphys-ical and optical properties. Advanced lidar systems provide spatially and… (More)
The Kohonen neural network is a self-organizing network that can be used for the projection of the surface properties of molecules. This allows one to view properties on a molecular surface, like the electrostatic potential in a single picture. These maps are useful for the comparison of molecules and provide a new definition of molecular similarity.
Similarities in the molecular structure and surface properties of the allosteric modulators of muscarinic receptors, alcuronium, gallamine, tubocurarine, and the hexamethonium compound W84, a well-known pharmacological tool, are explored. The analysis of the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) as well as of the shape of the molecular surface is… (More)
Contents Abstract ix 1. Introduction 1 1.1.
Volcanic ash is commonly observed by infrared detectors on board Earth-orbiting satellites. In the presence of ice and/or liquid-water clouds, the detected volcanic ash signature may be altered. In this paper the sensitivity of detection and retrieval of volcanic ash to the presence of ice and liquid-water clouds was quantified by simulating synthetic… (More)
Mineral particles, in general, are not spheres and so the assumption of spherical particles, instead of more realistic shapes, has significant effects on modeled optical properties and therefore on remote-sensing procedures for desert aerosol and the derived radiative forcing. Thus, in a new version of the database OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosols and… (More)
Losses of reflected Direct Normal Irradiance due to atmospheric extinction in concentrated solar tower plants can vary significantly with site and time. The losses of the direct normal irradiance between the heliostat field and receiver in a solar tower plant are mainly caused by atmospheric scattering and absorption by aerosol and water vapor concentration… (More)