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Using immunoperoxidase labeling (IPL) and immunofluorescence labeling (IFL) methods, and each followed by NADPH diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemical staining in the same specimen, colocalization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and NADPHd, indicative of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), in cerebral pial arteries and the sphenopalatine ganglia (SPG) of the cat(More)
1) The article reviews the current state of understanding of diversity among El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, which differ from event to event in their amplitude, spatial pattern, temporal evolution, dynamical mechanisms, and impacts. 2) ENSO diversity is apparent in historical climate records, paleo proxy records, and model simulations. There(More)
The distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-immunoreactivities, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd)-reactivities in the sphenopalatine ganglia (SPG), and perivascular nerves in middle cerebral arteries of the pig was investigated by(More)
The distribution of serotonin-like immunoreactive (5-HT-LI) fibers in pial arteries and arteries of the choroid plexus in the cat, rat and guinea pig was examined. Weak 5-HT-LI fibers were observed in cerebral arteries when these arteries were fixed by immersion after they had been dissected from the exsanguinated animals. The 5-HT-LI fibers, however, were(More)
The presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) and their coexistence with NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd), a marker for NOS, in the porcine sphenopalatine ganglia (SPG), pial veins, and the anterior cerebral arteries was examined using immunohistochemical and histochemical staining techniques.(More)
The innervation pattern and the vasomotor response of the potential transmitters in the porcine pial veins were investigated morphologically and pharmacologically. The porcine pial veins were more densely innervated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)- and neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive (I) fibers than were calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-I,(More)
STOIC: a study of coupled model climatology and variability in tropical ocean regions Abstract We describe the behaviour of 23 dynamical ocean-atmosphere models, in the context of comparison with observations in a common framework. Fields of tropical sea surface temperature (SST), surface wind stress and upper ocean vertically averaged temperature (VAT) are(More)
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