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Molecular cloning of genomic sequences altered in cancer cells is believed to lead to the identification of new genes involved in the initiation and progression of the malignant phenotype. DNA amplification is a frequent molecular alteration in tumor cells, and is a mode of proto-oncogene activation. The cytologic manifestation of this phenomenon is the(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether polymorphisms in the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor α1 subunit (GABRA1) gene influence sleep induction time, bispectral index score (BIS) during sleep induction and the total dose of midazolam required to reach a Ramsay Sedation Assessment Scale (RSAS) score of 4. METHODS Patients scheduled for elective orthopaedic(More)
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