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The interrupter method for measuring respiratory system resistance involves rapidly interrupting flow at the mouth while measuring the pressure just distal to the point of interruption. The pressure signal observed invariably exhibits two distinct phases. The first phase is a very rapid jump, designated delta Pinit, which occurs immediately on interruption(More)
The role of nutritional status in the prognosis of subjects with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was studied in a cohort of Canadian men and women followed for 3 to 5 yr. A total of 348 subjects who were recruited for a study of negative pressure ventilation were evaluated for lung function and body weight, and a subset who entered hospital for(More)
Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is(More)
BACKGROUND Corticosteroid insensitivity in asthmatics is associated with an increased expression of glucocorticoid receptor-beta (GR-beta) in many cell types. T-helper type 17 (Th17) cytokine (IL-17A and F) expressions increase in mild and in difficult-to-treat asthma. We hypothesize that IL-17A and F cytokines alone or in combination, induce the expression(More)
The hypothesis that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have chronic inspiratory muscle fatigue was tested in an effectiveness trial in which negative pressure ventilation (NPV) was used to produce inspiratory muscle rest. In a double-blind study 184 patients with severe COPD were randomly allocated active or sham NPV treatment for a(More)
Contractile agonists may stimulate mitogenic responses in airway smooth muscle by mechanisms that involve tyrosine kinases. The role of contractile agonist-evoked activation of tyrosine kinases in contractile signaling is not clear. We addressed this issue using cultured rat airway smooth muscle cells. In these cells, serotonin (5-HT, 1 microM) caused(More)
We measured airway responsiveness to methacholine (MCh) of highly inbred rats before and after six inhalational challenges with antigen. Ten Brown-Norway rats (130-216 g) that were actively sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) received six challenges with OA at 5-day intervals beginning 19 days after sensitization. An aerosol of OA (5% wt/vol) was inhaled for 1, 2,(More)
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between allergen-induced early and late airway responses and antigen-specific IgE, IgG, and lymphocyte subsets in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Brown Norway rats were sensitized at 7 weeks of age with ovalbumin (1 mg s.c.) with use of Bordetella pertussis as an adjuvant. Three weeks after(More)
BACKGROUND We have shown previously that the late airways response (LAR) can be transferred by ovalbumin-primed CD4(+) T lymphocytes in Brown Norway rats. This response is associated with an increase of eosinophils and high expression of TH2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. OBJECTIVE In this study we hypothesized that the(More)