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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Depression occurs frequently in PD; however the neural basis of depression in PD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize possible depression-related white matter microstructural changes in the thalamus of patients with DPD compared with those with NDPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS FA and MD maps from DTI were obtained(More)
(-)-Stepholidine (SPD) is a natural product. Previous studies had demonstrated that SPD displayed D1 agonism in unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats and D1 antagonism in reserpinized rats and normal rats. The aim of the present study was to explain this peculiar pharmacological action based on behavioral and biochemical experiments. In the(More)
This paper is concerned with the derivation and analysis of hydrodynamic models for systems of self-propelled particles subject to alignment interaction and attraction-repulsion. The starting point is the kinetic model considered in [10] with the addition of an attraction-repulsion interaction potential. Introducing different scalings than in [10], the(More)
Sublethal ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a powerful inducer of ischemic brain tolerance. However, its underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. In this study, we chose four different IPC paradigms, namely 5 min (5 min duration), 5×5 min (5 min duration, 2 episodes, 15-min interval), 5×5×5 min (5 min duration, 3 episodes, 15-min intervals), and(More)
AIM To elucidate the action sites of l-stepholidine (SPD) in the basal ganglia. METHODS Counting the rotations after intra-nucleus microinjection and recording the neuron firing by microiontophoresis of SPD and DA agonists in the basal ganglia of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. RESULTS The DA immunoreactive substance was markedly reduced in(More)
Rewarding memories induced by addictive drugs may contribute to persistent drug-seeking behaviors, which is an important contributing factor to drug addiction. However, the biological mechanisms underlying drug-associated rewarding memories have not yet been fully understood, especially the new synthetic drugs, such as amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). In(More)
Consider a geometric Brownian motion X t (ω) with drift. Suppose that there is an independent source that sends signals at random times τ 1 < τ 2 < · · ·. Upon receiving each signal, a decision has to be made as to whether to stop or to continue. Stopping at time τ will bring a reward S τ , where S t = max(max 0≤u≤t X u , s) for some constant s ≥ X 0. The(More)
The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of the ketamine on the immune function and cognitive function in young rats. The young rats (40) rats were randomly divided into two groups where each group contains 20 rats, such as Group I: normal control; Group II: Ketamine treated group. All group rats received the intravenous injection of treatment(More)
κ opioid receptor agonists produce aversive effects in rodents, however the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been discovered to play a critical role in the modulation of affective behaviors. The present study was undertaken to detect the possible involvement of p38 MAPK in the aversive(More)