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The evidence of detrimental effects of ozone on vegetation in Europe, and the need to develop international control policies to reduce ozone exposures which are based on the effects of the pollutant, has led to attempts to define so-called critical levels of ozone above which adverse effects on trees, crops and natural vegetation may occur. This review is a(More)
A field experiment was established at 2000 m above sea level (asl) in the central Swiss Alps with the aim of investigating the effects of elevated ozone (O(3)) and nitrogen deposition (N), and of their combination, on above-ground productivity and species composition of subalpine grassland. One hundred and eighty monoliths were extracted from a species-rich(More)
This overview of experimentally induced effects of ozone aims to identify physiological and ecological principles, which can be used to classify the sensitivity to ozone of temperate grassland communities in Europe. The analysis of data from experiments with single plants, binary mixtures and multi-species communities illustrates the difficulties to relate(More)
This paper develops a regression-based model for predicting changes in biomass of individual species exposed to ozone (RS(p)), based on their Ellenberg Indicator values. The equation (RS(p)=1.805-0.118Light-0.135 square root Salinity) underpredicts observed sensitivity but has the advantage of widespread applicability to almost 3000 European species. The(More)
Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate–carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere(More)
Ozone effects on plants depend on atmospheric transport and stomatal uptake. Thus, ozone-risk assessments should use measured ozone concentrations and account for the influence of atmospheric conditions and soil moisture on stomatal and nonstomatal ozone deposition. This requires disaggregated data for the physical input parameters and species-specific data(More)
Open-top chambers (OTC) were established in a field of managed pasture, and environmental parameters were recorded inside and outside to study the influence of OTCs on radiation, air temperature (T(air)), saturation vapour pressure deficit (svpd), and soil water content in relationship to plant growth and yield. Canopy development in OTCs supplied with(More)
Root turnover is an important carbon flux component in grassland ecosystems because it replenishes substantial parts of carbon lost from soil via heterotrophic respiration and leaching. Among the various methods to estimate root turnover, the root's radiocarbon signature has rarely been applied to grassland soils previously, although the value of this(More)
Brown knapweed (Centaurea jacea L.) has been suggested as a potential bioindicator for tropospheric ozone (O3), but little is known about the intra-specific variation in O3 sensitivity in this wild species. The aim of this study was to quantify the differences in O3 sensitivity among and within five populations, and to relate the differences to(More)