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The crystal structure of RNA polymerase II in the act of transcription was determined at 3.3 A resolution. Duplex DNA is seen entering the main cleft of the enzyme and unwinding before the active site. Nine base pairs of DNA-RNA hybrid extend from the active center at nearly right angles to the entering DNA, with the 3' end of the RNA in the nucleotide(More)
Amyloid-beta peptide is central to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, because it is neurotoxic--directly by inducing oxidant stress, and indirectly by activating microglia. A specific cell-surface acceptor site that could focus its effects on target cells has been postulated but not identified. Here we present evidence that the 'receptor for advanced(More)
Amyloid-beta is a neurotoxic peptide which is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. It binds an intracellular polypeptide known as ERAB, thought to be a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, which is expressed in normal tissues, but is overexpressed in neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease. ERAB immunoprecipitates with amyloid-beta, and(More)
A backbone model of a 10-subunit yeast RNA polymerase II has been derived from x-ray diffraction data extending to 3 angstroms resolution. All 10 subunits exhibit a high degree of identity with the corresponding human proteins, and 9 of the 10 subunits are conserved among the three eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III. Notable features of the model(More)
The current therapies to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are limited. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) systems, originally identified in bacteria and archaea, have been found to consist of an RNA-based adaptive immune system that degrades complimentary sequences of invading plasmids and viruses. Here, we(More)
Previous studies have shown that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RSD) exerts a detrimental effect on some memory tasks. However, whether post-learning RSD impairs memory for fear extinction, an important model of inhibitory learning, remains to be elucidated. The present study examined the effects of post-extinction RSD from 0 to 6 h and 6 to 12(More)
Accurate identification of fungal pathogens using a sequence-based approach requires an extraction method that yields template DNA pure enough for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or other types of amplification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and standardise a rapid, inexpensive DNA extraction protocol applicable to the major fungal(More)
Asparagine-linked glycosylation is a highly conserved protein modification reaction that occurs in all eukaryotic organisms. The oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), which has its active site exposed on the luminal face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), catalyzes the transfer of preassembled high mannose oligosaccharides onto certain asparagine residues of(More)
We investigated the relationships of Asian bufonids using partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA genes. Twenty-six samples representing 14 species of Bufo from China and Vietnam and 2 species of Torrentophryne from China were examined. Three samples of Bufo viridis from Armenia and Georgia were also sequenced to make a comparison to its sibling tetraploid(More)
QTL mapping for plant-height traits has not been hitherto reported in high-oil maize. A high-oil maize inbred 'GY220' was crossed with two dent maize inbreds ('8984' and '8622') to generate two connected F2:3 populations. Four plant-height traits were evaluated in 284 and 265 F2:3 families. Single-trait QTL mapping and multiple-trait joint QTL mapping was(More)