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We used fMRI to directly compare the neural substrates of three-dimensional (3-D) shape and motion processing for realistic textured objects rotating in depth. Subjects made judgments about several different attributes of these objects, including 3-D shape, the 3-D motion, and the scale of surface texture. For all of these tasks, we equated visual input,(More)
The geometric relation between physical and perceived space as specified by binocular stereopsis and structure from motion was investigated. Four experimental tasks were used, each of which required a different aspect of three-dimensional (3-D) structure to be performed accurately. To examine whether the transformation between physical and perceptual space(More)
A set of 4 experiments evaluated observers' sensitivity to three-dimensional (3-D) length, using both discrimination and adjustment paradigms with computer-generated optical patterns and real objects viewed directly in a natural environment. Although observers were highly sensitive to small differences in two-dimensional length for line segments presented(More)
How do human observers perceive a coherent pattern of motion from a disparate set of local motion measures? Our research has examined how ambiguous motion signals along straight contours are spatially integrated to obtain a globally coherent perception of motion. Observers viewed displays containing a large number of apertures, with each aperture containing(More)
Three experiments are reported in which observers judged the three-dimensional (3-D) structures of virtual or real objects defined by various combinations of texture, motion, and binocular disparity under a wide variety of conditions. The tasks employed in these studies involved adjusting the depth of an object to match its width, adjusting the planes of a(More)
Two experiments were conducted to explore the potential effects of aging upon the perception and discrimination of speed. In the first experiment, speed difference thresholds were obtained for younger and older observers for a variety of standard speeds ranging from slow to fast. The second experiment was designed to evaluate the observers' ability to(More)
A single experiment investigated how younger (aged 18-32 years) and older (aged 62-82 years) observers perceive 3D object shape from deforming and static boundary contours. On any given trial, observers were shown two smoothly-curved objects, similar to water-smoothed granite rocks, and were required to judge whether they possessed the "same" or "different"(More)
An orientation matching task was used to evaluate observers' sensitivity to local surface orientation at designated probe points on randomly shaped 3-D objects that were optically defined by texture, lambertian shading, or specular highlights. These surfaces could be stationary or in motion, and they could be viewed either monocularly or stereoscopically,(More)
The ability of younger and older adults to perceive the 3-D shape, depth, and curvature of smooth surfaces defined by differential motion and binocular disparity was evaluated in six experiments. The number of points defining the surfaces and their spatial and temporal correspondences were manipulated. For stereoscopic sinusoidal surfaces, the spatial(More)
In a series of nine experiments, observers were required to identify the shapes of moving targets, and to discriminate regions of motion from regions of uncorrelated noise. Maximum displacement thresholds (Dmax) for performing these tasks were obtained under a wide variety of conditions. The stimulus parameters manipulated included the number of distinct(More)